Vagococcus lutrae
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Enterococcaceae, Genus Vagococcus, Vagococcus lutrae Lawson et
al. 1999.
Gram-positive cocci occurring as single cells, in pairs or in short chains elongated in
the direction of the chain. Motile. Non-spore-forming.
Colonies on blood agar, after incubation at 37 ºC, are small, smooth up to 0-2 mm in
diameter. Facultatively anaerobic. Temperature range for growth on TYSE broth is
20-40 ºC. Alpha-haemolytic on horse or sheep blood agar.
Habitat is not known. Isolated from the common otter (Lutra lutra) on the Isle of Mull, UK.
Undetermined. The type strain was isolated as the dominant organism from blood, liver, lungs and spleen specimens from a
common otter dead by road traffic accident.
  1. Lawson (P.A.), Foster (G.), Falsen (E.), Ohlen (M.) and Collins (M.D.): Vagococcus lutrae sp. nov., isolated from the common otter
    (Lutra lutra). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol, 1999, 49, 1251-1254.
  2. Killer, J., Svec, P., Sedlaccek, I., Cernohlavkova, J., Benada, O., Hroncova, Z., Havlik, J., Vlkova, E., Rada, V., Kopecny, J. and
    Kofronova, O. 2014. Vagococcus entomophilus sp. nov., from the digestive tract of a wasp (Vespula vulgaris). Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol., 64, 731-737.
  3. Leon M.T. Dicks, Wilhelm. H. Holzapfel, Masataka Satomi, Bon Kimura and Tateo Fujii, 2009: Genus III. Tetragenococcus Collins,
    Williams and Wallbanks 1993, 188VP. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume Three, Vos, P.D.;
    Garrity, G.; Jones, D.; Krieg, N.R.; Ludwig, W.; Rainey, F.A.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Whitman, W.B. (Eds.), pp 611-616.
Positive results for acid phosphatase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chymotrypsin,
esculin hydrolysis, ester lipase C-8, alpha-galactosidase, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, glycyltryptophan arylamidase, leucine
arylamidase, beta-mannosidase, pyroglutamic acid arylamidase, acid production from: cyclodextrin, glucose, maltose,
methyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, D-ribose, sorbitol, sucrose & trehalose.

Negative results for alanine-phenylalanine-proline arylamidase, arginine dihydrolase, catalase, alpha-fucosidase, gelatin hydrolysis,
beta-glucuronidase, hipurate hydrolysis, indole production, alpha-mannosidase, lipase C14, nitrate reduction, oxidase, trypsin,
urease, valine arylamidase, Voges-Proskauer test, acid production from: D-arabitol, L-arabinose, glycogen, mannitol, melibiose,
melezitose, lactose, pullulan, D-raffinose, tagatose & D-xylose.

Alkaline phosphatase, beta-galactosidase and beta-galacturonidase is either weak or negative.
(c) Costin Stoica
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