Vagococcus fluvialis
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Enterococcaceae, Genus Vagococcus, Vagococcus fluvialis Collins et
al. 1990, type species of the genus.

Reacts with Lancefield group N antiserum. Some strains give a weak reaction with Lancefield group D antiserum.
Gram-positive cocci, occuring single or grouped in pairs or chains. Most strains are
motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Non-spore-forming.
Facultatively anaerobic. Colonies are alpha-haemolytic on blood agar. Temperature
range for growth: 10-40 ºC, optimally at 30 ºC. Does not grow or occasionally produce
very weak growth in 6.5% NaCl. L-lactic acid is produced from glucose. Can be isolated
on blood-supplemented agar (BHI or Columbia agar + 5% bovine, horse, or sheep
blood), incubated at 37 ºC aerobically or in CO
2 (5-10%) enhanced atmosphere.
Isolated from chicken feces, river water, human clinical specimens (blood, peritoneal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and wounds, and from
domestic animals (various lesions of pigs, lesions and tonsils of cattle and cats, and tonsils of horses).
Susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Resistant to clindamycin, lomefloxacin,
and ofloxacin.
May be an opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals.
  1. Collins (M.D.), Ash (C.), Farrow (J.A.E.), Wallbanks (S.) and Williams (A.M.): 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequence analyses of
    lactococci and related taxa. Description of Vagococcus fluvialis gen. nov., sp. nov. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 1989, 67, 453-460.
  2. Matthew D. Collins, 2009: Genus IV. Vagococcus CCollins, Ash, Farrow, Wallbanks and Williams 1990a, 212VP. In Bergey’s
    Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume Three, Vos, P.D.; Garrity, G.; Jones, D.; Krieg, N.R.; Ludwig, W.;
    Rainey, F.A.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Whitman, W.B. (Eds.), pp 616-618.
  3. Wang (L.), CUI (Y.S.), Kwon (C.S.), Lee (S.T.), Lee (J.S.) and Im (W.T.): Vagococcus acidifermentans sp. nov., isolated from an
    acidogenic fermentation bioreactor. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1123-1126.
  4. Lawson (P.A.), Falsen (E.), Cotta (M.A.) and Whitehead (T.R.): Vagococcus elongatus sp. nov., isolated from a swine-manure
    storage pit. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 751-754.
Some results are based on  Rapid ID 32 Strep and API ZYM systems (bioMerieux).

Positive results for pyrrolidonyl arylamidase, leucine arylamidase, beta-glucosidase, bile-esculin reaction, glycyl tryptophan
arylamidase, acid production from: cyclodextrin D-fructose, glucose (without gas), inositol, maltose, mannitol, D-mannose, D-ribose,
sorbitol & trehalose.

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, catalase, alpha- and beta-galactosidase, hippurate hydrolysis, beta-glucuronidase, gelatin
hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, alanine phenylalanine proline arylamidase, acid production from: amygdalin, arbutin, D- and L-arabitol,
L-arabinose, dulcitol, glycogen, galactose, glycerol, inulin, melibiose, melezitose, pullulan, raffinose, L-rhamnose, D- and L-xylose

Variable results for alkaline phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, Voges proskauer test, urease, acid production from
lactose, starch, sucrose & tagatose.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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