Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Enterococcaceae, Genus Vagococcus, Vagococcus carniphilus
Shewmaker et al. 2004.
Gram-positive cocci, single cells or grouped in pairs, or short chains. Most strains
Does not produce haemolysis or pigment when grown on tryptic soy agar + 5% sheep
blood at 35 ºC. Can grow at 10 ºC. Growth at 45 ºC is variable. Can grow in 6.5% NaCl
broth. Gas is not produced in MRS broth. Tellurite 0.4% is not tolerated.
Isolated from ground beef purchased from retail in Oregon in 2000. The natural habitat is unknown. Susceptible to vancomycin.
Undetermined. Could be associated with opportunistic infections in man or animals.
- Shewmaker (P.L.), Steigerwalt (A.G.), Morey (R.E.), Carvalho (M. da G.S.), Elliott (J.A.), Joyce (K.), Barrett (T.J.), Teixeira (L.M.) and
Facklam (R.R.): Vagococcus carniphilus sp. nov., isolated from ground beef. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1505-1510.
- Wang (L.), CUI (Y.S.), Kwon (C.S.), Lee (S.T.), Lee (J.S.) and Im (W.T.): Vagococcus acidifermentans sp. nov., isolated from an
acidogenic fermentation bioreactor. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1123-1126.
Some results are based on Rapid ID 32 Strep system (bioMerieux).
Positive results for pyrrolidonyl arylamidase, leucine aminopeptidase, esculin hydrolysis in the presence of bile (40%), pyruvate
utilization, pyroglutamic acid arylamidase, acid production from: D-arabinose, cyclodextrin, D-fructose, D-glucose, glycerol, maltose,
ribose, salicin, trehalose & methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside.
Negative results for alkaline phosphatase, arginine dihydrolase, catalase, beta-glucosidase, alpha- and beta-galactosidase,
beta-glucuronidase, hippurate hydrolysis, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-mannosidase, urease, Voges-Proskauer reaction,
acid production from: amygdalin, L-arabinose, D-arabitol, arbutin, dulcitol, D-galactose, glycogen, inositol, inulin, lactose, mannitol,
D-mannose, melibiose, melezitose, pullulan, raffinose, rhamnose, sorbitol, sorbose, starch, tagatose & D- and L-xylose.
Variable results for acid production from sucrose.
(c) Costin Stoica