Fermentation
Glycerol
D-Arabinose
D-Ribose
D-Galactose
D-Mannitol
MADG
Lactose
Melibiose
Raffinose
D-Tagatose
Subsp. flandriensis
-
+
v
+
v
-
+
+
+
+
Subsp. halophilus
+
-
+
v
-
v
-
v
-
v
Legend: +  positive, - negative, v variable, MADG Methyl alpha-D-glucoside
Differential characters between Tetragenococcus halophilus subspecies:
Tetragenococcus halophilus
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Enterococcaceae, Genus Tetragenococcus, Tetragenococcus
halophilus
(Mees 1934) Collins et al. 1993, comb. nov., type species of the genus. Two subspecies:
- Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. flandriensis Juste et al. 2012,
- Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. halophilus (Mees 1934) Juste et al. 2012.

Old synonyms:
Pediococcus halophilus Mees 1934, Tetracocccus No. 1 Orla-Jensen 1919, Sarcina hamaguchiae Saito 1907,
Pediococcus soyae Sakaguchi 1958.
Gram-positive cocci, 0.6-1 µm. Cell division occurs in two planes at right angles to
form tetrads. Non-motile. Non-spore-forming.
Colonies are white, round, convex and smooth, and approximately 0.6 mm in
diameter after incubation at 30 ºC for 5 days on TSA agar. They grow on TSA at 30 ºC
aerobically and in an anaerobic jar, but show only an onset of growth (growth only at
the spot of inoculation) on standard MRS agar at 30 ºC under either aerobic or
anaerobic conditions (subsp. flandriensis doesn’t grow at all). Growth is enhanced by
the addition of 5% NaCl (w/v). Growth occurs at NaCl concentrations in the range 0-25
% (w/v) and at 15-30 ºC on TSA agar but not at 4 ºC or above 37 ºC. Optimal growth
temperature is 30 ºC. Optimal pH is 7.0-9.0
Subsp. flandriensis: the type strain was isolated from degraded sugar thick juice.
Subsp. halophilus: the type strain was isolated from salted anchovy. Susceptible to vancomycin.
Undetermined.
  1. Juste (A.), Van Trappen (S.), Verreth (C.), Cleenwerck (I.), De Vos (P.), Lievens (B.) and Willems (K.A.): Characterization of
    Tetragenococcus strains from sugar thick juice reveals a novel species, Tetragenococcus osmophilus sp. nov., and divides
    Tetragenococcus halophilus into two subspecies, T. halophilus subsp. halophilus subsp. nov. and T. halophilus subsp.
    flandriensis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 129-137.
  2. Leon M.T. Dicks, Wilhelm. H. Holzapfel, Masataka Satomi, Bon Kimura and Tateo Fujii, 2009: Genus III. Tetragenococcus Collins,
    Williams and Wallbanks 1993, 188VP. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume Three, Vos, P.D.;
    Garrity, G.; Jones, D.; Krieg, N.R.; Ludwig, W.; Rainey, F.A.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Whitman, W.B. (Eds.), pp 611-616.
Positive results for pyrrolidonyl-arylamidase, acid production from: amygdalin, arbutin, cellobiose, gentibiose, D-glucose, D-fructose,
D-mannose, maltose, salicin, sucrose, trehalose & turanose.

Negative results for arginne hydrolysis, catalase, esculin hydrolysis (positive by DSMZ), nitrate reduction, oxidase, acid production from:
adonitol, L-arabitol, L-arabinose, dulcitol, erythritol, D- and L-fucose, glycogen, inositol, inulin, D-lyxose, melezitose, methyl
alpha-D-mannoside, methyl beta-D-xyloside, L-rhamnose, L-sorbose, starch, xylitol, D- and L-xylose.

Variable results for D-arabitol & D-sorbitol fermentation.
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