Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Enterococcaceae, Genus Enterococcus, Enterococcus hirae  Farrow
and Collins 1985. Lancefield group D.
Gram-positive, ovoid cells, grouped mostly in pairs or short chains. Nonmotile.
Colonies on blood or nutrient agar are circular, smooth and entire. Nonhemolytic.
Growth occurs at 10 and 45 ºC, in 6.5% NaCl and at pH 9.6. Facultatively anaerobic.
Isolated from human and veterinary clinical materials, food, plants surface and contaminated waters.
Occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals (poultry). May cause septicaemia and focal necrosis of the brain in chicks
and septicaemia in psittacine birds. Infections in humans are very rare.
  1. Pavel Svec and  Luc A. Devriese, 2009: Genus I. Enterococcus (ex Thiercelin and Jouhaud 1903) Schleifer and Kilpper-Bälz 1984,
    32VP in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume Three, Vos, P.D.; Garrity, G.; Jones, D.; Krieg, N.R.;
    Ludwig, W.; Rainey, F.A.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Whitman, W.B. (Eds.), pp 594-606.
  2. Farrow J.A.E. and Collins M.D.: Enterococcus hirae, a new species that includes amino acid assay strain NCDO 1258 and strains
    causing growth depression in young chickens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 73-75.
Positive results for esculin hydrolysis, Voges-Proskauer, arginine dihydrolase,
beta-galactosidase, leucine arylamidase, pyrrolidonylarylamidase, acid production
from: amygdalin, arbutin, N-acetylglucosamine, cellobiose, fructose, galactose,
glucose, beta-gentiobiose, lactose, maltose, mannose, melibiose, ribose, salicin,
sucrose & trehalose.

Negative results for catalase, alkaline phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, acid production from: adonitol, D- or L-arabinose, D- or
L-arabitol, dulcitol, erythritol, D-or L-fucose, glycogen, gluconate, inositol, inulin, 2- or 5-keto-gluconate, D-lyxose, mannitol,
alpha-methyl-D-glucoside, alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, alpha-methylxyloside, rhamnose, sorbose, sorbitol, D- or L-xylose & xylitol.

Variable results for hippurate hydrolysis, acid production from: glycerol, melezitose, raffinose, starch, D-tagatose & D-turanose.
Enterococcus hirae
(c) Costin Stoica
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