|E. faecium colonies on Bile Esculin Agar. Dark brown
halos around colonies due to esculin hydrolysis
|Enterococcus faecium colonies on Sheep Blood Agar
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Enterococcaceae, Genus Enterococcus, Enterococcus faecium
(Orla-Jensen 1919) Schleifer and Kilpper-Bälz 1984.
Lancefield group D.
Basonym: Streptococcus faecium Orla-Jensen 1919.
Gram-positive, ovoid cells, elongated in the direction of the chain, grouped in pairs or
short chains. Some strains are motile.
Colonies on blood agar or nutrient agar are circular, smooth, and entire. Non-
pigmented. Some strains may produce an alpha-hemolysis.
Strains grow at 10 and 50 ºC, survive heating at 60 ºC for 30 min, and grow in 6.5%
NaCl at pH 9.6.
Isolated from feces & gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, from plants
(more often from flowers than from buds or leaves), foods, soil and contaminated
Can contaminate carcasses, milk and dairy products during processing.
Normal inhabitant of the human and animal intestine.
May produce nosocomial infections.
- Pavel Svec and Luc A. Devriese, 2009: Genus I. Enterococcus (ex Thiercelin and Jouhaud 1903) Schleifer and Kilpper-Bälz
1984, 32VP in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume Three, Vos, P.D.; Garrity, G.; Jones, D.;
Krieg, N.R.; Ludwig, W.; Rainey, F.A.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Whitman, W.B. (Eds.), pp 594-606.
- Karl H. Schleifer and Renate Kilpper-Balz. Transfer of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium to the Genus
Enterococcus nom. rev. as Enterococcus faecalis comb. nov. and Enterococcus faecium comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol January
1984 34:31-34; doi:10.1099/00207713-34-1-31.
Positive results for arginine dehydrolase, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase, acetoin production,
leucine arylamidase, aesculin hydrolysis, acid production from: ribose, galactose,
D-glucose, D-fructose, D-mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, salicin,
cellobiose, maltose, lactose, beta-gentiobiose, glycerol (aerobically) & trehalose.
Negative results for alkaline phosphatase, starch hydrolysis, alpha-galactosidase,
beta-glucuronidase, acid production from: from D-xylose, L-xylose, adonitol,
L-sorbose, dulcitol, sorbitol, alpha-methyl-D-glucoside, melezitose, D-raffinose,
starch, glycogen, xylitol, D-turanose, D-lyxose, D-tagatose, D-arabitol, L-arabitol,
2-ketogluconate, 5-ketogluconate, erythritol, alpha-methyl-xyloside, inositol, D- &
Pyruvate, citrate, malate & serine are not utilized
Variable results for hydrolysis of hippurate, acid production from: sucrose, rhamnose,
arabinose, raffinose, sorbitol & mannitol.
(c) Costin Stoica