Enterococcus avium
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Enterococcaceae, Genus Enterococcus, Enterococcus avium (ex
Nowlan and Deibel 1967) Collins et al. 1984.
Lancefield group D and Q.
Historical synonym:
Streptococcus avium  Nowlan and Deibel 1967.
Gram-positive, ovoid cells elongated in the direction of the chain, mostly in pairs or
short chains. Nonmotile.
Colonies on blood agar or nutrient agar are circular, smooth, and entire,
nonpigmented. Most strains produce an alpha-hemolysis on blood agar. Folinic
acid (or folic acid plus thymine) is required for growth. Does not grow in the
presence of 0.04% tellurite or in 0.1% methylene blue milk.
Grow well at 45 ºC and survive heating at 60 ºC for 30 min. Can grow at 10 ºC.
Isolated from human and veterinary clinical materials (birds), from food and the environment. Resistant to vancomycin.
Very rarely human pathogen (one  catheter-associated cystitis, one polymicrobial infected pancreatic pseudocyst, one brain abscess).
  1. Collins, M. D., Jones, D., Farrow, J. A. E., Kilpper-Balz, R., Schleifer, K. H. Enterococcus avium nom. rev., comb. nov.; E. casseliflavus
    nom. rev., comb. nov.; E. durans nom. rev., comb. nov.; E. gallinarum comb. nov.; and E. malodoratus sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol
    1984 34: 220-223.
  2. Pavel Švec and  Luc A. Devriese, 2009: Genus I. Enterococcus (ex Thiercelin and Jouhaud 1903) Schleifer and Kilpper-Bälz 1984,
    32VP in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume Three, Vos, P.D.; Garrity, G.; Jones, D.; Krieg, N.R.;
    Ludwig, W.; Rainey, F.A.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Whitman, W.B. (Eds.), pp 594-606.
  3. Lee, Prescott P. MD; Ferguson, Donald A. Jr; Laffan, John J. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus avium Infections: Report of 2
    Cases and a Review of Enterococcus avium Infections. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: July 2004 - Volume 12 - Issue 4 -
    pp 239-244.
Positive results for H2S production, esculin hydrolysis, acid production from: adonitol, L-
arabinose, D- arabitol, L-arabitol, dulcitol, galactose, glycerol, 2-keto-gluconate, D-lyxose,
mannitol, melezitose, alpha-methyl-D-glucoside, rhamnose, sorbitol, L-sorbose, sucrose, D-tagatose, trehalose, D-turanose & xylitol.

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, alpha-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, starch hydrolysis, Voges–Proskauer test, nitrate
reduction, acid production from: glycogen, inositol, inulin, raffinose, xylose & starch.

Variable results for hippurate hydrolysis, beta-galactosidase, acid production from alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, gluconate, 5-keto-
gluconate & melibiose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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