Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Enterobacteriales, Family Enterobacteriaceae, Genus Shigella,
- Shigella boydii Ewing 1949,
- Shigella dysenteriae Castellani and Chalmers 1919 - type species of the genus, old synonym: Bacillus dysentericus Shiga 1897,
- Shigella flexneri Castellani and Chalmers 1919,
- Shigella sonnei (Levine 1920) Weldin 1927.
The Shigella species and Escherichia coli are a single species on the basis of DNA relatedness,
but they remain separate species to avoid confusion.
Gram-negative rods, non-motile, non-encapsulated.
S-type colonies, nonpigmented. Facultatively anaerobic, growth temperature 37 ºC.
Media: Nutrient Agar or Nutrient Broth, Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep blood, Mac
Widely distributed in nature. Isolated from feces, water and soil. The normal habitat is intestinal tract of man and apes.
Shigella species are commonly pathogenic to humans, causing severe gastroenteritis (bacillary dysentery), more severe in children.
S. dysenteriae serotype 1 causes more severe disease than other serotypes and produces an exotoxin (Shiga toxin).
- J. G. Holt et al., 1994. Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods. Subgroup 1. Family Enterobacteriaceae. In: Begey’s Manual of
Determinative Bacteriology, 9th-edition, Williams & Wilkins, pp 175-189.
- Ewing W.H.: Shigella nomenclature. Journal of Bacteriology, 1949, 57, 633-638.
- Castellani A. & Chalmers A.J.: Manual of Tropical Medicine, 3rd ed., Williams Wood and Co., New York, 1919, p. 935.
- Don J. Brenner and J.J. Farmer III, 2001. Family I. Enterobacteriaceae. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second
edition, Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 587-897.
Positive results for nitrate reduction, methyl red and acid production from D-mannose.
Negative results for H2S production, oxidase, lysine decarboxylase, citrate utilization, Voges-Proskauer test, urea hydrolysis,
phenylalanine deaminase, gelatin hydrolysis, esculin hydrolysis, DN-ase, lipase, acetate utilization, acid production from lactose,
salicin, adonitol, myo-inositol, sucrose, alpha-methyl-D-glucoside and mucate.
The four species are often reffered to as subgroups A to D. Subgroup A strains are mannitol non-fermenters (most of them) and the
other 3 subgroups are mannitol fermenters.
subgroup A: S. dysenteriae (15 serotypes)
subgroup B: S. flexneri (14 serotypes)
subgroup C: S. boydii (19 serotypes)
subgroup D: S. sonnei
S. dysenteriae: catalase is not produced by serotype 1, but is usually produced by strains of other serotypes. Dulcitol is fermented by
strains of serotype 5. Indole production is variable among serotypes.
S. flexneri: dulcitol is fermented by certain biotypes of serotype 6 and 4a some biotypes may produce gas from sugars.
S. boydii: dulcitol is usually fermented by serotypes 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10. Serotypes 13 and 14 may produce gas from sugars.
(c) Costin Stoica
Legend: + positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains
Differential characters of the species: