Genus Pectobacterium
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Enterobacteriales, Family Enterobacteriaceae, Genus Pectobacterium,

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Pectobacterium atrosepticum (van Hall 1902) Gardan et al. 2003, old synonyms: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum
(van Hall 1902) Hauben et al. 1999,
Bacillus atrosepticus van Hall 1902, Erwinia atroseptica (van Hall 1902) Jennison 1923,
Bacterium atrosepticum (van Hall 1902) Lehmann and Neumann 1927, Pectobacterium atrosepticum (van Hall 1902) Patel and
Kulkarni 1951,
Bacterium cartovorum var. atrosepticum Hellmers and Dowson 1953, Pectobacterium carotovorum var. atrosepticum
Hellmers and Dowson 1957,
Erwinia carotovora var. atroseptica (Hellmers and Dowson 1953) Dye 1969;
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Pectobacterium betavasculorum (Thomson et al. 1984) Gardan et al. 2003, basonym: Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum
Thomson et al. 1984, synonym:
Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. betavasculorum (Thomson et al. 1984) Hauben et al. 1999;
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Pectobacterium cacticida corrig. (Alcorn et al. 1991) Hauben et al. 1999, basonym: Erwinia cacticida Alcorn et al. 1991;
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Pectobacterium carnegieana (Standring 1942) Brenner et al. 1973, homotypic synonym: Erwinia carnegieana Standring 1942, - both
names were proposed for rejection;
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Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones 1901) Hauben et al. 1999 - type species of the genus, basonym: Erwinia
carotovora subsp. carotovora
(Jones 1901) Bergey et al. 1923;
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Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. odoriferum (Gallois et al. 1992) Hauben et al. 1999, basonym: Erwinia carotovora subsp.
odorifera
Gallois et al. 1992;
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Pectobacterium wasabiae (Goto and Matsumoto 1987) Gardan et al. 2003, Erwinia carotovora subsp. wasabiae Goto and
Matsumoto 1987, synonym:
Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. wasabiae (Goto and Matsumoto 1987) Hauben et al. 1999.
Gram-negative rods, motile (peritrichous flagella), 0.5-1.0 x 1-3 µm. Occur singly or in
pairs.
Colonies are white, circular with entire margins, convex, and 1.0-2.0 mm in diameter.
Colonies of
P. cacticida are small, smooth, glistening, circular, entire, slightly convex,
ivory, and translucent, and frequently have striations.They produce a distinct odor and
become opaque, offwhite, and butyrous with age.

Facultatively anaerobic. Optimum growth temperature 26-30 ºC.  No growth over 40 ºC
(except
P. cacticida). P. atrosepticum doesn't not grow at 36 ºC.
Isolated from plants.
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Pectobacterium atrosepticum was isolated from potato and tomato.
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Pectobacterium betavasculorum was isolated from sugar beet, sunflower, artichoke and potato.
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Pectobacterium cacticida was isolated from cactus (Opuntia).
- Pectobacterium carotovorum was isolated from carrots, onion, broccoli, cabbage, potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum
melongena
), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), chicory, leek, celery and hyacinth.
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Pectobacterium wasabiae was isolated from Japanese horseradish (Eutrema wasabi ).
Cause plant diseases that include blights, cankers, die back, leaf spots, wilts,
discoloration of plant tissues and soft rot (bacterial vascular necrosis and rot).
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Pectobacterium atrosepticum causes blackleg of potato and soft rot of potato tubers.
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Pectobacterium betavasculorum causes root vascular necroses of sugar beet.
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Pectobacterium cacticida causes soft rotting of cacti. Experimentally caused soft rot
of saguaro, organ pipe, senita cacti, tomato fruits, potato slices, and slices of carrot
roots.
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Pectobacterium  carotovorum causes soft rot in carrots, onion, broccoli, cabbage,
also causes soft rot and black heart in potato & eggplant, hollow stem in tomato,
stump rot in head lettuce.
P. carotovorum subsp. odoriferum causes soft rot of witloof
chicory during forcing and decay of other plants such as leek, celery and hyacinth.
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Pectobacterium wasabiae causes discoloured rhizomes and fibrous rot of
Japanese horseradish (
Eutrema wasabi), and experimentally, of potato tubers, carrot
and radish roots, midribs of chinese cabbage, tomato and tobacco plants.
  1. J. G. Holt et al., 1994. Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods. Subgroup 1. Family Enterobacteriaceae. In: Begey’s Manual of
    Determinative Bacteriology, 9th-edition, Williams & Wilkins, pp 175-189.
  2. Don J. Brenner and J.J. Farmer III, 2001. Family I. Enterobacteriaceae. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second
    edition, Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 587-897.
  3. Louis Gardan, Cecile Gouy, Richard Christen, and Regine Samson. Elevation of three subspecies of Pectobacterium
    carotovorum to species level: Pectobacterium atrosepticum sp. nov., Pectobacterium betavasculorum sp. nov. and
    Pectobacterium wasabiae sp. nov.  Int J Syst Evol Microbiol March 2003 53:381-391.
  4. S. M. AlcornandT. V. Orum. Rejection of the Names Erwinia carnegieana Standring 1942 and Pectobacterium carnegieana
    (Standring 1942) Brenner, Steigerwalt, Miklos and Fanning 1973: Request for an Opinion. Int J Syst Bacteriol January 1988 38:132-
    134;
  5. Alcorn (S.M.) et al. : Taxonomy and pathogenicity of Erwinia cacticida sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 197-212.ð        
    Hauben (L.), et al.: Phylogenetic position of phytopathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1998, 21, 384-
    397.
Positive results for catalase, nitrates reduction, esculin hydrolysis, acetate utilization,
acid production from: glucose, mannitol, rhamnose, sucrose & salicin.

Negative results for oxidase, indole production, arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, urea hydrolysis,
acid production from adonitol.
(c) Costin Stoica
Antibiogram
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R E G N U M
PROKARYOTAE
 
Citrate
utilization
Voges -
Proskauer
Gelatin
hydrolysis
Alpha-Methyl-
D-Glucoside
Inositol
fermentation
Beta-
Galactosidase
Inulin
fermentation
P. atrosepticum
+
d
-
+
+
+
-
P. betavasculorum
-
+
d
d
+
+
+
P.  cacticida
+
+
-
d
-
+
nd
P. carotovorum subsp.
carotovorum
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
P. carotovorum subsp.
odoriferum
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
P. wasabiae
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
Differential characters of the species:
Legend: +  positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains
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