Phylum Actinobacteria, Class Actinobacteria , Subclass Actibacteridae, Order Actynomycetales, Suborder Actinomycinae, Family
Actinomycetaceae, Genus Trueperella, Trueperella pyogenes (Glage 1903) Yassin, Hupfer, Siering and Schumann 2011, comb. nov.
Historical synonyms: Corynebacterium pyogenes (Glage 1903) Eberson 1918; Arcanobacterium pyogenes (Glage 1903) Pascual
Ramos, Foster and Collins 1997; Actinomyces pyogenes (Glage 1903), Reddy, Cornell and Fraga 1982.
Gram-positive coccobacilli and short rods (0.2-0.9/0.3-2.5 µm) that occur singly, in
pairs (V, T, and palisade formations), or in clusters, short diphtheroid forms with
clubs, and streptococcal forms in small clumps and short crooked chains. Cells from
older cultures may be Gram-variable. Non-motile. Non-sporulated.
Pinpoint colonies on sheep blood agar after 24 h of incubation; after 2-3 days the
colonies are convex, opaque, white, soft, and 0.5-1.5 mm in diameter.
Beta-haemolytic; the zones of hemolysis are typically two to three times the diameter
of the colony. CAMP reaction is negative. Aerobic, facultative anaerobic. Optimum
growth temperature: 37 ºC, range 20-40 ºC. Hemin and peptides are required for
growth. Riboflavin and nicotinic acid are required for optimal growth; adenine and
uracil are required for optimal growth of some strains.
Presumably, it occurs as a commensal organism on the mucous surfaces of warm-
blooded animals. It is frequently isolated from a wide variety of pyogenic disease
conditions in many species of domestic animals and in humans.
Culture filtrates are fatal to mice and rabbits after intravenous injection. It is frequently
isolated from a wide variety of pyogenic disease conditions in many species of
domestic animals and in humans.
The hemolysin is active against human, guinea pig, sheep, horse, and rabbit
erythrocytes. Both toxic and hemolytic activities of crude cell extracts are neutralized by
- Reddy C.A., Cornell C.P., and Fraga A.M., 1982. Transfer of Corynebacterium pyogenes (Glage) Eberson to the Genus
Actinomyces as Actinomyces pyogenes (Glage) comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 419-429.
- Cummins C.S., Lelliott R.A. and Rogosa M., 1975. Genus Corynebacterium Lehmann and Neumann 1896. In: Buchanan R.E. and
Gibbons N.E. (Editors), Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eight Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore,
- Ramos C.P., Foster G. and Collins M.D., 1997. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genus Actinomyces Based on 16S rRNA Gene
Sequences: Description of Arcanobacterium phocae sp. nov., Arcanobacterium bernardiae comb. nov., and Arcanobacterium
pyogenes comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 47, 46-53.
- Yassin A.F., Hupfer H., Siering C. and Schumann P., 2011. Comparative chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies on the genus
Arcanobacterium Collins et al. 1982 emend. Lehnen et al. 2006: proposal for Trueperella gen. nov. and emended description of
the genus Arcanobacterium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1265-1274.
Acid clotting and digestion of clots in litmus milk are characteristic. Fermentative metabolism.
Positive results for gelatinase, alpha-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, hippurate hydrolysis, leucine
arylamidase, starch hydrolysis, acid production from: arabitol, cellobiose, dextrin, fructose, galactose, glucose, glycogen, lactose,
maltose, melezitose, mannose, starch, trehalose, xylitol & xylose.
Negative results for acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, esterase-lipase C8, catalase, alpha-galactosidase,
N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, indole production, nitrate reduction, pyrazinamidase, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase, urease,
Voges-Proskauer test, acid production from: amygdalin, esculin, gentiobiose, inulin, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose & salicin.
Variable results for acid production from: adonitol, arabinose, erythritol, glycerol, inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, sucrose & turanose.
(c) Costin Stoica