Gelatinase
Methyl red
Voges-Proskauer
H2S production
Citrate
utilization
Acid from
arabinose
Subsp. californensis
-
-
nd
-
-
nd
Subsp. chilensis
-
-
nd
-
+
nd
Subsp. insidiosum
-
+
+
v
+
+
Subsp. michiganensis
+
v
+
+
+
v
Subsp. nebraskensis
-
v
-
v
+
v
Subsp. phaseoli
-
-
nd
nd
nd
nd
Subsp. sepedonicus
-
-
-
-
+
-
Subsp. tessellarius
-
-
+
nd
+
nd
Legend: + positive; - negative; V variable; nd not determined.
 
Acid from
lactose
Acid from
mannitol
Acid from
raffinose
Acid from
salicin
Acid from
sorbitol
Acid from
trehalose
Subsp. californensis
nd
-
-
nd
-
nd
Subsp. chilensis
nd
-
-
nd
-
nd
Subsp. insidiosum
+
v
-
-
-
+
Subsp. michiganensis
-
v
v
v
-
v
Subsp. nebraskensis
-
v
v
-
v
v
Subsp. phaseoli
nd
-
nd
nd
-
nd
Subsp. sepedonicus
-
+
+
-
v
-
Subsp. tessellarius
nd
+
nd
nd
nd
nd
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Actinobacteria, Class Actinobacteria, Subclass Actibacteridae, Order Actynomycetales, Suborder Micrococcinae, Family
Microbacteriaceae, Genus Clavibacter Davis, Gillaspsie Jr., Vidaver and Harris 1984,
Clavibacter michiganensis corrig. (Smith 1910)
Davis, Gillaspsie Jr., Vidaver and Harris 1984,  comb. nov.,
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus  corrig. (Spieckermann
and Kotthoff 1914) Davis, Gillaspsie Jr., Vidaver and Harris 1984,
comb. nov.

Historical synonyms:
Corynebacterium sepedonicum (Spieckermann and Kotthoff 1914) Skaptason and Burkholder 1942,
Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann and Kotthoff 1914) Carlson and Vidaver 1982, "Bacterium
sepedonicum
" Spieckermann and Kotthoff 1914, "Aplanobacter sepedonicum" (Spieckermann and Kotthoff 1914) Smith 1920,
"
Phytomonas sepedonica" (Spieckermann and Kotthoff 1914) Magrou 1937, "Mycobacterium sepedonicum" (Spieckermann and
Kotthoff 1914) Krasil'nikov 1949, "
Pseudobacterium sepedonicum" (Spieckermann and Kotthoff 1914) Krasil'nikov 1949.
Gram-positive cells, predominantly wedge-shaped but coccoid and curved and but
some V,Y and palisade arrangements are usually present. Non-motile.
Non-sporulated. Mycolic acids are not present.
Require nutritionally rich media (nutrient broth yeast extract medium, tetrazolium
chloride medium, nutrient glucose agar, etc) on which they grow slowly . Thiamine,
biotin and nicotinic acid, histidine, purine and pyrimidines  are essential growth
factors. On nutrient glucose agar colonies becoming visible after 3-5 days ,1 mm
diameter, opaque, smooth, low convex, entire and semi-fluidal when freshly isolated
but become butyrous with prolonged subculturing and glistening. White colonies on
SC agar and NBY agar. Optimal growth at 20-23 ºC; range from 3-4 to 30-31 ºC.
Isolated from plants. Host specificity: potato. No bacteriophage sensitivity .
Pathogenic, obligate parasite of various flowering plants. Causes a vascular wilt and tuber rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Can
also affect some other Solanum spp.
  1. Cummins C.S., Lelliott R.A. and Rogosa M., 1975. Genus Corynebacterium Lehmann and Neumann 1896 . In: Buchanan R.E.
    Baltimore, 602-617.
  2. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T. and Williams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth
    Edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, Baltimore, pp 571-596.
  3. Davis M.J., Gillaspie Jr. A.G., Vidaver A.K. and Harris R.W., 1984. Clavibacter: a New Genus Containing Some Phytopathogenic
    Coryneform Bacteria, Including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp.
    nov., Pathogens That Cause Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane and Bermudagrass Stunting Disease. IJSB Vol. 34, No. 2, p.
    107-117.
  4. Carlson R.R. and Vidaver A.K., 1982. Taxonomy of Corynebacterium Plant Pathogens, Including a New Pathogen of Wheat, Based
    on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Cellular Proteins. IJSB Vol. 32, N0. 3, p. 315-326.
  5. Vidaver A.K. and Mandel M., 1974. Corynebacterium nebraskense, a New, Orange-Pigmented Phytopathogenic Species. Int. J.
    Syst. Bacteriol. Vol. 24, No. 4, p. 482-485.
  6. Gonzales A.J. and Trapiello E. 2014. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov., pathogenic in bean. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol. 64, 1752-1755.
  7. Yasuhara-Bell J. and Alvarez A.M., 2015. Seed-associated subspecies of the genus Clavibacter are clearly distinguishable from
    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Int. J. Syst. Microbiol. 65, 811-826.
Not acid fast.

Positive results for catalase, citrate utilisation, esculin hydrolysis, acid production from: mannitol & raffinose.

Negative results for casein hydrolysis, gelatinase,  H
2S production, indole production, lipase, methyl red test, nitrate reduction, oxidase,
tyrosine hydrolysis, urease, Voges-Proskauer test, acid production from: arabinose, galactose, glucose, inulin, lactose, melezitose,
melibiose, rhamnose, ribose, salicin, trehalose & xylose.

Variable results for starch hydrolysis, acid production from: mannose, sorbitol & sucrose.
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus
(c) Costin Stoica
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Differential characters of Corynebacterium michiganensis subspecies: