Legend: + positive; - negative; V variable; nd not determined.
 
Acid from
lactose
Acid from
mannitol
Acid from
raffinose
Acid from
salicin
Acid from
sorbitol
Acid from
trehalose
Subsp. californensis
nd
-
-
nd
-
nd
Subsp. chilensis
nd
-
-
nd
-
nd
Subsp. insidiosum
+
v
-
-
-
+
Subsp. michiganensis
-
v
v
v
-
v
Subsp. nebraskensis
-
v
v
-
v
v
Subsp. phaseoli
nd
-
nd
nd
-
nd
Subsp. sepedonicus
-
+
+
-
v
-
Subsp. tessellarius
nd
+
nd
nd
nd
nd
 
Gelatinase
Methyl red
Voges-Proskauer
H2S production
Citrate
utilization
Acid from
arabinose
Subsp. californensis
-
-
nd
-
-
nd
Subsp. chilensis
-
-
nd
-
+
nd
Subsp. insidiosum
-
+
+
v
+
+
Subsp. michiganensis
+
v
+
+
+
v
Subsp. nebraskensis
-
v
-
v
+
v
Subsp. phaseoli
-
-
nd
nd
nd
nd
Subsp. sepedonicus
-
-
-
-
+
-
Subsp. tessellarius
-
-
+
nd
+
nd
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Actinobacteria, Class Actinobacteria , Subclass Actibacteridae, Order Actynomycetales, Suborder Micrococcinae, Family
Microbacteriaceae, Genus Clavibacter Davis, Gillaspsie Jr., Vidaver and Harris 1984,
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli
Gonzales and Trapiello 2014.
Gram-positive coryneform rods. Non-motile. Non-sporulated.
Colonies are yellow, round, mucoid or fluidal and entire, 1.5-2 mm in diameter after 5
days in incubation on King B medium at 25 ºC.Grows on King B  medium, TTC
(2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride) agar.  Aerobe. Optimal growth at 24-28 ºC; range
4-35 ºC. Can grow in 0-5% NaCl.
Isolated from bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Pathogenic in bean, causing bacterial bean leaf yellowing: brown spots, yellowing and chlorosis in leaves, vascular wilting, rot and
necrosis, alteration of leaf nerves and burnt. On pods, the symptoms consisted of orange spots and darkening sutures, which
culminated in drying; whereas on seeds, the symptoms observed were small size in some and the appearance of some spots.
  1. Gonzales A.J. and Trapiello E. 2014. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov., pathogenic in bean. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol. 64, 1752-1755.
  2. Yasuhara-Bell J. and Alvarez A.M., 2015. Seed-associated subspecies of the genus Clavibacter are clearly distinguishable from
    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Int. J. Syst. Microbiol. 65, 811-826.
  3. Cummins C.S., Lelliott R.A. and Rogosa M., 1975. Genus Corynebacterium Lehmann and Neumann 1896 . In: Buchanan R.E. and
    Gibbons N.E. (Editors), Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eight Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore,
    602-617.
  4. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T. and Williams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth
    Edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, Baltimore, pp 571-596.
  5. Davis M.J., Gillaspie Jr. A.G., Vidaver A.K. and Harris R.W., 1984. Clavibacter: a New Genus Containing Some Phytopathogenic
    Coryneform Bacteria, Including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp. nov.,
    Pathogens That Cause Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane and Bermudagrass Stunting Disease. IJSB Vol. 34, No. 2, p.107-
    117.
  6. Carlson R.R. and Vidaver A.K., 1982. Taxonomy of Corynebacterium Plant Pathogens, Including a New Pathogen of Wheat, Based
    on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Cellular Proteins. IJSB Vol. 32, N0. 3, p. 315-326.
  7. Vidaver A.K. and Mandel M., 1974. Corynebacterium nebraskense, a New, Orange-Pigmented Phytopathogenic Species. Int. J. Syst.
    Bacteriol. Vol. 24, No. 4, p. 482-485.
Not acid fast. Description is based on API 50 CH and API ZYM tests.

Positive results for acid phosphatase, catalase, cystine arylamidase, esculin hydrolysis,
alpha-galactosidase, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase & Tween 80 hydrolysis.

Can utilize L-lactate, lactose, melibiose, methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside, N-acetylglucosamine, gluconate, 5-ketogluconate, glycerol,
myo-inositol, ribose, D-mannitol, sucrose & D-xylose.

Negative results for alkaline phosphatase, arginine dihydrolase, casein hydrolysis, gelatinase, beta-glucosidase,
alpha-mannosidase, methyl red & oxidase.

No utilization of adonitol, erythritol, sorbitol, homoserine, D-tartrate, trigonelline, betaine, gentiobiose & quinate.
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli
(c) Costin Stoica
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Differential characters of Corynebacterium michiganensis subspecies: