Legend: + positive; - negative; V variable; nd not determined.
 
Acid from
lactose
Acid from
mannitol
Acid from
raffinose
Acid from
salicin
Acid from
sorbitol
Acid from
trehalose
Subsp. californensis
nd
-
-
nd
-
nd
Subsp. chilensis
nd
-
-
nd
-
nd
Subsp. insidiosum
+
v
-
-
-
+
Subsp. michiganensis
-
v
v
v
-
v
Subsp. nebraskensis
-
v
v
-
v
v
Subsp. phaseoli
nd
-
nd
nd
-
nd
Subsp. sepedonicus
-
+
+
-
v
-
Subsp. tessellarius
nd
+
nd
nd
nd
nd
 
Gelatinase
Methyl red
Voges-Proskauer
H2S production
Citrate
utilization
Acid from
arabinose
Subsp. californensis
-
-
nd
-
-
nd
Subsp. chilensis
-
-
nd
-
+
nd
Subsp. insidiosum
-
+
+
v
+
+
Subsp. michiganensis
+
v
+
+
+
v
Subsp. nebraskensis
-
v
-
v
+
v
Subsp. phaseoli
-
-
nd
nd
nd
nd
Subsp. sepedonicus
-
-
-
-
+
-
Subsp. tessellarius
-
-
+
nd
+
nd
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Actinobacteria, Class Actinobacteria , Subclass Actibacteridae, Order Actynomycetales, Suborder Micrococcinae, Family
Microbacteriaceae, Genus Clavibacter Davis, Gillaspsie Jr., Vidaver and Harris 1984,
Clavibacter michiganensis corrig. (Smith 1910)
Davis, Gillaspsie Jr., Vidaver and Harris 1984,  comb. nov.,
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis corrig. (Vidaver and
Mandel 1974) Davis, Gillaspsie Jr., Vidaver and Harris 1984,  comb. nov.

Historical synonyms:
Corynebacterium nebraskense Vidaver and Mandel 1974,  Corynebacterium michiganense subsp.
nebraskense
(Vidaver and Mandel 1974) Carlson and Vidaver 1982.
Gram positive pleomorphic (straight or slightly curved slender) rods, 0.25-0.5/0.75-2.7
µm, occurring singly or in pairs at generally obtuse angles. Non-motile.
Non-sporulated. Mycolic acids are not present.
Require nutritionally rich media (nutrient broth yeast extract medium-NBY,
potato-dextrose agar, etc) on which they grow slowly . Thiamine, biotin and nicotinic
acid are essential growth factors. Unable to grow on triphenyltetrazolium chloride.
Colonies become visible in 3-4 days and completed developed after 5 days; they are
convex, 3-5 mm in diameter,  glistening, and butyrous with entire margins which were
delimited from a central, darker zone. Orange pigmentation of colonies on NBY agar.
Optimal growth at 24-28 ºC. Can grow at 10 ºC, but not at 37 ºC.
Isolated from different field-corn hybrids (leaf material and stalks). Host specificity: corn. Bacteriophage sensitive .
Pathogenic, obligate parasite of plants. Causes a disease of field corn, called Goss’s bacterial wilt and blight (synonymous with leaf
freckles and wilt), characterized by a foliar blight.
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T. and Williams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth
    Edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, Baltimore, pp 571-596.
  2. Davis M.J., Gillaspie Jr. A.G., Vidaver A.K. and Harris R.W., 1984. Clavibacter: a New Genus Containing Some Phytopathogenic
    Coryneform Bacteria, Including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp.
    nov., Pathogens That Cause Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane and Bermudagrass Stunting Disease. IJSB Vol. 34, No. 2, p.
    107-117.
  3. Carlson R.R. and Vidaver A.K., 1982. Taxonomy of Corynebacterium Plant Pathogens, Including a New Pathogen of Wheat, Based
    on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Cellular Proteins. IJSB Vol. 32, N0. 3, p. 315-326.
  4. Vidaver A.K. and Mandel M., 1974. Corynebacterium nebraskense, a New, Orange-Pigmented Phytopathogenic Species. Int. J.
    Syst. Bacteriol. Vol. 24, No. 4, p. 482-485.
  5. Gonzales A.J. and Trapiello E. 2014. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov., pathogenic in bean. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol. 64, 1752-1755.
  6. Yasuhara-Bell J. and Alvarez A.M., 2015. Seed-associated subspecies of the genus Clavibacter are clearly distinguishable from
    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Int. J. Syst. Microbiol. 65, 811-826.
  7. Cummins C.S., Lelliott R.A. and Rogosa M., 1975. Genus Corynebacterium Lehmann and Neumann 1896 . In: Buchanan R.E.
    and Gibbons N.E. (Editors), Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eight Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company,
    Baltimore, 602-617.
Not acid fast.

Positive results for catalase, citrate utilization, esculin hydrolysis, acid production (up to 7 days) from: galactose, glucose, mannose &
sucrose.

Negative results for casein hydrolysis, gelatinase, indole production, lipase, nitrate reduction, oxidase, tyrosine hydrolysis, urease,
Voges-Proskauer test, acid production from: inulin, lactose, melezitose, rhamnose, ribose & salicin.

Variable results for H
2S, methyl red test, starch hydrolysis, acid production from: arabinose, mannitol, melibiose, raffinose, sorbitol,  
trehalose & xylose.
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis
(c) Costin Stoica
Antibiogram
Encyclopedia
Culture media
Biochemical tests
Stainings
Images
Movies
Articles
Identification
Software
R E G N U M
PROKARYOTAE
Previous page
Back