Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Actinobacteria, Class Actinobacteria, Subclass Actibacteridae, Order Actynomycetales, Suborder Micrococcinae, Family
Microbacteriaceae, Genus Clavibacter Davis, Gillaspsie Jr., Vidaver and Harris 1984,
Clavibacter michiganensis corrig. (Smith 1910)
Davis, Gillaspsie Jr., Vidaver and Harris 1984,
comb. nov.

Historical synonyms:
Corynebacterium michiganense (Smith 1910) Jensen 1934,  Corynebacterium michiganense subsp.
michiganense
(Smith 1910) Jensen 1934, Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. michiganense (Smith 1910) Carlson and Vidaver
1982, "
Bacterium michiganense" Smith 1910, "Pseudomonas michiganensis" (Smith 1910) Stevens 1913, "Aplanobacter
michiganense
"  (Smith 1910) Smith 1914, "Phytomonas michiganensis" (Smith 1910) Bergey et al. 1923, "Mycobacterium flavum
subsp. michiganense
" (Smith 1910) Krasil'nikov 1941.
Gram-positive pleomorphic (straight or slightly curved slender) rods, 0.4-0.75 / 0.8-2.5
µm, often arranged in V formations. Non-motile. Non-sporulated. Mycolic acids are not
present.
Require nutritionally rich media (nutrient broth yeast extract medium, tetrazolium
chloride medium, nutrient glucose agar, etc) on which they grow slowly . Thiamine,
biotin and nicotinic acid are essential growth factors. Colonies become visible in 2-3
days and completed developed in 5-7 days; they are convex, 2-4 mm, opaque,
smooth, glistening and semi-fluidal when freshly isolated but become butyrous with
prolonged subculturing. Yellow pigmentation of colonies on SC agar. Pink, red,
orange and non-pigmented variants occur uncommonly. Obligately aerobic.
Optimum growth temperature: 20-29 ºC, range 10-35 ºC.
Isolated from various flowering plants. Host specificity: tomato, pepper and some other solanaceous plants.
No bacteriophage sensitivity.
Pathogenic, obligate parasite of various flowering plants. Causes a vascular wilt, canker and leaf and fruit spot of tomato
(
Lycopersicon esculentum) and some other solanaceous plants.
  1. Cummins C.S., Lelliott R.A. and Rogosa M., 1975. Genus Corynebacterium Lehmann and Neumann 1896 . In: Buchanan R.E.
    and Gibbons N.E. (Editors), Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eight Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company,
    Baltimore, 602-617.
  2. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T. and Williams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth
    Edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, Baltimore, pp 571-596.
  3. Davis M.J., Gillaspie Jr. A.G., Vidaver A.K. and Harris R.W., 1984. Clavibacter: a New Genus Containing Some Phytopathogenic
    Coryneform Bacteria, Including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp.
    nov., Pathogens That Cause Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane and Bermudagrass Stunting Disease. IJSB Vol. 34, No. 2, p.
    107-117.
  4. Carlson R.R. and Vidaver A.K., 1982. Taxonomy of Corynebacterium Plant Pathogens, Including a New Pathogen of Wheat, Based
    on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Cellular Proteins. IJSB Vol. 32, N0. 3, p. 315-326.
  5. Vidaver A.K. and Mandel M., 1974. Corynebacterium nebraskense, a New, Orange-Pigmented Phytopathogenic Species. Int. J.
    Syst. Bacteriol. Vol. 24, No. 4, p. 482-485.
  6. Gonzales A.J. and Trapiello E. 2014. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov., pathogenic in bean. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol. 64, 1752-1755.
  7. Yasuhara-Bell J. and Alvarez A.M., 2015. Seed-associated subspecies of the genus Clavibacter are clearly distinguishable from
    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Int. J. Syst. Microbiol. 65, 811-826.
Not acid fast.

Positive results for catalase, citrate utilization, esculin hydrolysis, gelatinase, H
2S production, Voges-Proskauer test, acid production
from: glucose, galactose, mannose & sucrose.

Negative results for casein hydrolysis, indole production, lipase, nitrate reduction, oxidase, tyrosine hydrolysis, urease, acid
production from: inulin, lactose, rhamnose, ribose, sorbitol & xylose.

Variable results for methyl red, starch hydrolysis, acid production from: arabinose, mannitol, melezitose, melibiose raffinose, salicin &
trehalose.
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis
(c) Costin Stoica
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Differential characters of Corynebacterium michiganensis subspecies:
 
Gelatinase
Methyl red
Voges-Proskauer
H2S production
Citrate
utilization
Acid from
arabinose
Subsp. californensis
-
-
nd
-
-
nd
Subsp. chilensis
-
-
nd
-
+
nd
Subsp. insidiosum
-
+
+
v
+
+
Subsp. michiganensis
+
v
+
+
+
v
Subsp. nebraskensis
-
v
-
v
+
v
Subsp. phaseoli
-
-
nd
nd
nd
nd
Subsp. sepedonicus
-
-
-
-
+
-
Subsp. tessellarius
-
-
+
nd
+
nd
Legend: + positive; - negative; V variable; nd not determined.
 
Acid from
lactose
Acid from
mannitol
Acid from
raffinose
Acid from
salicin
Acid from
sorbitol
Acid from
trehalose
Subsp. californensis
nd
-
-
nd
-
nd
Subsp. chilensis
nd
-
-
nd
-
nd
Subsp. insidiosum
+
v
-
-
 
+
Subsp. michiganensis
-
v
v
v
-
v
Subsp. nebraskensis
-
v
v
-
v
v
Subsp. phaseoli
nd
-
nd
nd
-
nd
Subsp. sepedonicus
-
+
+
-
v
-
Subsp. tessellarius
nd
+
nd
nd
nd
nd