Gelatinase
Methyl red
Voges-Proskauer
H2S production
Citrate
utilization
Acid from
arabinose
Subsp. californensis
-
-
nd
-
-
nd
Subsp. chilensis
-
-
nd
-
+
nd
Subsp. insidiosum
-
+
+
v
+
+
Subsp. michiganensis
+
v
+
+
+
v
Subsp. nebraskensis
-
v
-
v
+
v
Subsp. phaseoli
-
-
nd
nd
nd
nd
Subsp. sepedonicus
-
-
-
-
+
-
Subsp. tessellarius
-
-
+
nd
+
nd
Legend: + positive; - negative; V variable; nd not determined.
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Actinobacteria, Class Actinobacteria, Subclass Actibacteridae, Order Actynomycetales, Suborder Micrococcinae, Family
Microbacteriaceae, Genus Clavibacter Davis, Gillaspsie Jr., Vidaver and Harris 1984,
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. chilensis
Yasuhara-Bell and Alvarez 2015.
Gram-positive coryneform rods. Non-motile. Non-sporulated.
Colonies are light to dark yellow, round and mucoid, with a consistency similar to that
of
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Grows on YSC, YDC, medium-6,
CNS medium, CMM1 and BCT media; sucrose appears to be the preffered carbon
surce. Aerobe. Optimal growth at 24-28 ºC. Can grow at 10 ºC, but not at 37 ºC.
Seed-associated strains (isolated from tomato seed produced in in Chile and India).
Non-pathogenic.
  1. Gonzales A.J. and Trapiello E. 2014. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov., pathogenic in bean. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol. 64, 1752-1755.
  2. Yasuhara-Bell J. and Alvarez A.M., 2015. Seed-associated subspecies of the genus Clavibacter are clearly distinguishable from
    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Int. J. Syst. Microbiol. 65, 811-826.
  3. Cummins C.S., Lelliott R.A. and Rogosa M., 1975. Genus Corynebacterium Lehmann and Neumann 1896 . In: Buchanan R.E.
    and Gibbons N.E. (Editors), Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eight Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company,
    Baltimore, 602-617.
  4. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T. and Williams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth
    Edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, Baltimore, pp 571-596.
  5. Davis M.J., Gillaspie Jr. A.G., Vidaver A.K. and Harris R.W., 1984. Clavibacter: a New Genus Containing Some Phytopathogenic
    Coryneform Bacteria, Including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp.
    nov., Pathogens That Cause Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane and Bermudagrass Stunting Disease. IJSB Vol. 34, No. 2, p.
    107-117.
  6. Carlson R.R. and Vidaver A.K., 1982. Taxonomy of Corynebacterium Plant Pathogens, Including a New Pathogen of Wheat, Based
    on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Cellular Proteins. IJSB Vol. 32, N0. 3, p. 315-326.
  7. Vidaver A.K. and Mandel M., 1974. Corynebacterium nebraskense, a New, Orange-Pigmented Phytopathogenic Species. Int. J.
    Syst. Bacteriol. Vol. 24, No. 4, p. 482-485.
Not acid fast. Description is based on API Coryne, API ZYM and Biolog tests.

Positive results for acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, catalase, citrate utilization,
esculin hydrolysis, esterase (C4), esterase lipase (C8), alpha- and beta-galactosidase, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, leucine
arylamidase, starch hydrolysis (weak), acid production from glucose (weak).

Can utilize acetate, dextrin, maltose, trehalose, cellobiose, gentiobiose, sucrose, turanose, stachyose, raffinose, alpha-lactose,
melibiose, methyl beta-D-glucoside, D-salicin, alpha-D-glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-fucose, inosine, D-sorbitol,
D-mannitol, myo-inositol, glycerol, L-alanine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, pectin, D-gluconic acid, glucuronamide, quinic acid,
L-malic acid, acetoacetic acid and acetic acid.

Negative results for casein hydrolysis, gelatinase, H
2S production, lipase, methyl red, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, nitrate
reduction, oxidase, urease, acid production from: adonitol, glycerol, inulin, mannitol, mannose, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose & sorbitol.
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. chilensis
(c) Costin Stoica
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Differential characters of Corynebacterium michiganensis subspecies:
 
Acid from
lactose
Acid from
mannitol
Acid from
raffinose
Acid from
salicin
Acid from
sorbitol
Acid from
trehalose
Subsp. californensis
nd
-
-
nd
-
nd
Subsp. chilensis
nd
-
-
nd
-
nd
Subsp. insidiosum
+
v
-
-
-
+
Subsp. michiganensis
-
v
v
v
-
v
Subsp. nebraskensis
-
v
v
-
v
v
Subsp. phaseoli
nd
-
nd
nd
-
nd
Subsp. sepedonicus
-
+
+
-
v
-
Subsp. tessellarius
nd
+
nd
nd
nd
nd