Phylum Actinobacteria, Class Actinobacteria, Order Micrococcales, Family Brevibacteriaceae, Genus Brevibacterium, Brevibacterium
iodinum (Davis 1939) Collins, Jones, Keddie and Sneath 1981.
Historical synonym: Chromobacterium iodinum Davis 1939.
Gram-positive or Gram-negative relatively short rods with a marked rod-coccus cycle
when growing on complex media; young culture (up to 24 h) produce coryneform rods
with V arrangements, while older cells are coccoid or coccobacillary. Nonmotile.
Spores are not produced. Mycolic acids are not present.
Colonies are opaque, convex, smooth and shiny surface, 0.75-1 mm in diameter (1-2
days) to 2-5 mm (extended incubation) and whitish-gray on nutrient agar. Blue to
purple extracellular crystals of iodinin are produced on some media. Aerobic. CAMP
test negative. Nonfastidious. Can grow at 20 and 37 ºC (25-30 ºC optimum), weak
and variable growth at 12 ºC.
The habitat include raw milk, surface-ripened cheeses, animal sources, water, soil and human sources.
- Funke G., von Graevenitz A., Clarridge III J.E., and Bernard K.A., 1997. Clinical Microbiology of Coryneform Bacteria. Clinical
Microbiology Rewiews Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 125-159.
- Funke G., 2006.Corynebacteria and rare coryneforms. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology & Microbial Infections, 10th Edition,
Edited by Borriello S.P., Murray P.R. and Funke G.,Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., Bacteriology, volume 2.
- Trujillo M.E. and Goodfellow M., 2012. Genus I. Brevibacterium Breed 1953, emend. Collins, Jones, Keddie and Sneath 1980.In:
Goodfellow M., Kampfer P., Busse H.J., Trujillo M.E., Suzuki K., Ludwig W. and Whitman W.B. (Editors), Bergey’s Manual of
Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, Vol. Five, The Actinobacteria, Part A, Springer, Athens, pp. 685-700.
- Collins M.D., Jones D., Keddie R.M. and Sneath P.H.A., 1980. Reclassification of Chromobacterium iodinum (Davis) in a
Redefined Genus Brevibacterium (Breed) as Brevibacterium iodinum nom.rev, ; comb.nov. J. Gen. Microbiol. 120, 1-10.
Not acid fast. Oxidative metabolism.
Positive results for casein hydrolysis (weak reaction), catalase, DNA hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, oxidase &
Negative results for esculin hydrolysis, alpha-glucosidase, hippurate hydrolysis, lipase, starch hydrolysis, urease, acid production
from: glucose, maltose, mannitol, phenylacetate, sucrose & xylose.
Can utilize citrate, but not D-arabinose, gluconate or mannitol.
(c) Costin Stoica