Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster XI (non-Clostridium
sensu stricto), Clostridium sticklandii Stadtman and McClung 1957.
Gram-positive, straight rods, 0.3 -0.5 x 1.3-3.8 µm, occuring singly, in pairs or in short
chains. Motile by peritrichous flagella. Spores are oval, subterminal, are rarely seen
(only in old cultures), slightly swelling the cell.
Surface colonies on blood agar are 1-2 mm in diameter, circular with an entire or
slightly undulated margin, convex, grayish-white, translucent or opaque, possess a
glossy surface and a mottled internal structure, and are nonhemolytic. Colonies in
agar are 1-2 mm in size and lenticular, becoming lobate.
Cultures in PYG broth are turbid with a smooth sediment and a pH of 6.0 after
incubation for 6 days. Good growth in nutrient broth with diffuse turbidity.
Optimum temperature for growth is 30 -37 ºC. Can grow at 25 & 45 ºC.
Moderate gas is detected in PYG deep agar cultures. Products in PYG broth cultures
include acetate, isovalerate, and isobutyrate.
Isolated from soil, San Francisco Bay black mud, feces of one subject in Uganda.
The type strain is susceptible to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, and tetracycline.
Toxin is not produced. Supernatant cultures are nontoxic to mice; strains are not pathogenic for guinea pigs or other laboratory
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1974. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
Milk reaction (curd) is negative.
Positive results for hydrogen production, ammonia production, utilization and/or acid production from: glucose (weak), maltose (weak)
& ribose (weak).
Negative results for casein hydrolysis, esculin hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production, lecithinase,
lipase,nitrate reduction, starch hydrolysis, urease, Voges-Proskauer reaction, substrate utilization and/or acid production from:
amygdalin, arabinose, cellobiose, dulcitol, esculin, fructose, galactose, glycogen, glycerol, inositol, inulin, lactose, mannitol,
mannose, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, salicin, sorbitol, sorbose, starch, sucrose, trehalose & xylose.
(c) Costin Stoica