Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto), Clostridium sartagoforme corrig. Partansky and Henry 1935.
Historical synonym: Clostridium sartagoformum Partansky and Henry 1935
Gram-positive straight or slightly curved rods, 0.3-0.9 x 2.2-8.0 µm, occurring singly or
in pairs. Motility is variable. Spores are oval or round, terminal, swelling the cell.
Sporulation occurs most readily in chopped-meat broth cultures. The cell wall is
susceptible to dissolution by lysozyme.
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are 1-3 mm in diameter, circular, with entire or
erose margins, flat or convex, gray, translucent, with a matt surface, and are usually
nonhemolytic. Colonies in agar are 1-1.5 mm in diameter and lenticular. Cultures in
PYG broth are turbid with a smooth or flocculent to ropy sediment and have a pH of 4.8
-5.1after incubation for 5 days.
Optimum temperature for growth is 30-37 ºC; range 20-45 ºC. Growth is stimulated
by fermentable carbohydrates. Growth is inhibited by 6.5% NaCl or 20% bile. Abundant gas is produced in PYG deep agar cultures.
No aero-tolerance. Products in PYG broth include large amounts of acetic, butyric, and formic acids and sometimes large amounts of
lactic acid; abundant hydrogen is produced.
Isolated from soil, mud, rumen fluid of healthy and bloating calves; the human gingival crevice; feces of neonates and infants; the
feces of approximately 5% of adult subjects tested. Susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and tetracycline.
Culture supernatants are not toxic for mice. Toxin is not produced. Non-pathogenic for laboratory animals.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1974. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
Milk reaction is negative. Meat is not digested.
Positive results for hydrogen production, esculin hydrolysis, neutral red reduction, substrate utilization and/or acid production from:
cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, melibiose, salicin, sucrose & trehalose.
Negative results for casein hydrolysis, DNase, gelatin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production, lecithinase, lipase, urease,
Voges-Proskauer reaction, substrate utilization and/or acid production from: adonitol, arabinose, cellulose, dulcitol, erythritol, glycerol,
inositol, inulin, sorbitol & sorbose.
Variable results for ammonia production, hippurate hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, starch hydrolysis, resazurin reduction, substrate
utilization and/or acid production from: amygdalin, glycogen, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose, starch & xylose.
(c) Costin Stoica