Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto), Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum Keis, Shaheen and Jones 2001.
Gram-positive (but Gram-negative in older cultures) rods, 0.4-0.8 x 3.1-6.2 µm, occur
singly or in pairs. Motile by peritrichous flagella. Spores are oval, terminal or
subterminal, 0.8-1.5 x 1.6-2.2 µm, not swelling the cell.
Colonies on CBM agar are smooth, white, domed, have entire/undulated margins,
and 2-3mm in diameter. Mesophilic. Optimum temperature for growth is 25-35 ºC.
Optimum pH 5.6-6.7. Acetone, butanol, ethanol, CO2, H2, and acetic and butyric acids
are end fermentation products.
Bacterium was first named and described by Hongo (1960) in US patent no. 2 945 786. These industrial strains were used in the
applied fermentation process for the production of the solvents acetone, butanol and ethanol from a variety of sugar- and
Not susceptible to rifampin.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Keis S., Shaheen R. and Jones D.T., 2001. Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii,
and descriptions of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov. IJSEM 51,
Milk reaction is negative. Meat is not digested. Pectin is fermented.
Positive results for hydrogen production, ammonia production, esculin hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, starch hydrolysis, substrate
utilization and/or acid production from: amygdalin, arabinose, cellobiose, glucose, glycogen, inulin, lactose, maltose, mannitol,
mannose, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose (weak), salicin, starch, sucrose, trehalose & xylose.
Negative results for catalase, indole production, nitrate reduction, oxidase, urease, substrate utilization and/or acid production from:
glycerol & ribose.
Variable results for H2S production, substrate utilization and/or acid production from: inositol, sorbitol & dulcitol.
(c) Costin Stoica