Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
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References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto),
Clostridium puniceum  Lund, Brocklehurst and Wyatt 1981.
Gram-negative/positive straight or curved rods, 0.6 x 1.8-4.2 µm, occurring singly,  in
pairs or in short chains. Motile by peritrichous flagella. Spores
are ellipsoidal,
subterminal, not swelling the sporangium; free spores are common and have an
extensive exosporium..
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are nonhemolytic, pinpoint - 2 mm, circular,
raised to convex, opaque, white, slightly shiny, and smooth, with an entire margin,
and have a granular or mottled internal structure. On potato infusion agar, colonies
are similar except that they are pale pink or deep pink and may have undulate or
lobate margins. Cultures in PYG broth are turbid with a viscous or flocculent
sediment and have a pH of 5.2
-5.5 after incubation for 6 days.
Optimum temperature for growth is 23-33 ºC; range 7-39 ºC. Grow moderately well
in PY broth without fermentable carbohydrates. Abundant gas is detected in PYG
deep agar cultures. Products in PYG broth include acetic, butyric, and formic acids,
and butanol; abundant hydrogen is produced.
Isolated from rotting potatoes, a cavity spot lesion in a carrot.
Susceptible to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, and tetracycline.
Culture supernatants are not toxic for mice.
  1. N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 738-828.
Slices of potato, carrot, radish, and turnip are digested. Pectin is fermented. Pectate is hydrolyzed. Milk reaction is positive (curd
production). Meat is not digested.

Positive results for hydrogen production, esculin hydrolysis, starch hydrolysis, substrate utilization and/or acid production from:
fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose & sucrose.

Negative results for indole production, lecithinase, lipase, nitrate reduction, substrate utilization and/or acid production from: glycogen,
inositol, mannitol, melezitose, rhamnose & sorbitol.

Variable results for substrate utilization and/or acid production from: amygdalin (weak), arabinose (weak), cellobiose, lactose,
mannose, melibiose (weak), raffinose (weak), ribose (weak), salicin, starch, trehalose & xylose.
Clostridium puniceum
(c) Costin Stoica
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