Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto), Clostridium paraputrificum (Bienstock 1906) Snyder 1936.
Historical synonyms: Bacillus paraputrificus Bienstock 1906, Bacillus diaphthirus
Gram-positive but rapidly become Gram-negative, straight or slightly curved rods,
0.5-1.4 x 1.9-17.0 µm, occuring singly or in pairs. Variable motility, peritrichous.
Spores are oval, subterminal/terminal, free spores, swelling the cell. Sporulation
occurs readily in chopped-meat or PY broth after incubation for 24 hour.
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are 1-5 mm in diameter, circular, low convex or
flat, grayish white, translucent or semiopaque, smooth, dull, with a mottled or mosaic
internal structure and a scalloped, erose, or undulate margin. No hemolysis produced.
No aerotolerance. Moderate growth in nutrient broth without fermentable
carbohydrates. Growth is markedly stimulated by fermentable carbohydrate. Cultures
in PYG broth are turbid with a smooth, flocculent or ropy sediment and have a pH of
4.5-5.0 after incubation for 5 days.
Optimum temperature for growth is 30-37 ºC. Grows at 25 ºC (weak) and 45 ºC.
Products in PYG broth: acetic, butyric, and lactic acids and abundant H2 . Abundant gas is produced in PYG deep agar cultures.
Isolated from soil; marine sediments; avian; human infant and adult feces; porcine and bovine feces; human clinical specimens
including blood, peritoneal fluid, wounds, and appendicitis.
Culture supernatant is not toxic to mice. Strains are not pathogenic for the guinea pig and rabbit.
It's active in the metabolism of bile acids and steroids and produce compounds that have been implicated in the incidence of colon
and breast cancer. One strain of this species is able to lyse Ehrlich ascites tumor tissue in mice (The lysis, however, is neither
complete nor permanent). Other strains have been found to promote the formation of liver tumors in mice.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1974. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
Milk reaction is positive (curd production)
Positive results for esculin hydrolysis, starch hydrolysis, substrate utilization and/or acid production from: fructose, galactose,
glucose, lactose, maltose, mannose, salicin, starch & sucrose.
Negative results for catalase, H2S production, indole production, lecithinase, lipase, substrate utilization and/or acid production from:
adonitol, cellulose, dulcitol, erythritol, glycerol, inositol, mannitol, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose & xylose.
Variable for nitrate reduction, Voges-Proskauer reaction, substrate utilization and/or acid production from: amygdalin, arabinose,
cellobiose, glycogen, inulin, rhamnose, ribose, sorbitol, sorbose & trehalose.
(c) Costin Stoica