Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster III (non-Clostridium
sensu stricto), Clostridium papyrosolvens Madden, Bryder and Poole 1982.
Gram-positive cell wall structure but cells are readily decolorized and hence appear
Gram-negative. Straight rods, 0.5-0.8 x 2.0-5.0 µm, occuring singly or in pairs. Motile
by peritrichous flagella. Spores are sphaerical, terminal, swelling the cell. They do not
germinate unless they are heat shocked at 70 ºC for 15 min.
Surface colonies in rumen fluid agar roll tubes are circular to slightly irregular, entire to
erose, convex, translucent, colorless, shiny, and smooth; after incubation for 3 weeks,
deep colonies in cellulose agar roll tubes are 1-2 mm in diameter, circular, translucent,
colorless and granular, surrounded by clear zones of cellulose hydrolysis 1-2 cm in
diameter. Nonhemolytic. Anaerobic.
Optimum temperature for growth is 25-30 ºC. Grows at 15 ºC and 45 ºC (weak).
Best growth occurs in an atmosphere of 90% N2 – 10% CO2 . Cultures in PYG broth are
slightly turbid with a granular sediment and have a pH of 5.0 after incubation for 5 days.
Fermentable carbohydrates are required for growth. Abundant gas is detected in PYG
deep agar cultures. Products in PYG broth are moderate amounts of lactic, formic, pyruvic, fumaric, and lactic acids, and abundant
hydrogen. End products from growth in cellulose broth cultures are ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2, and CO2 . The species name
"papyrosolvens" reflects the ability of the organism to ferment filter paper.
Isolated from estuarine sediments. The type strain is susceptible to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, and
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Madden R. H., Bryder M.J., and Poole N.J., 1982. Isolation and Characterization of an Anaerobic, Cellulolytic Bacterium,
Clostridium papyrosolvens sp. nov. IJSB 32, 1, 87-91.
Milk reaction and meat digestion are negative.
Positive results for esculin hydrolysis, substrate utilization and/or acid production from: arabinose, cellobiose, cellulose, esculin,
galactose, glucose, glycerol, ribose & xylose.
Negative results for catalase, casein hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production, lecithinase, lipase, nitrate
reduction, starch hydrolysis, urease, Voges-Proskauer reaction, substrate utilization and/or acid production from: amygdalin, adonitol,
dulcitol, erythritol, glycogen, inositol, inulin, lactose, maltose, mannitol, mannose, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, salicin,
sorbitol, sorbose, starch, sucrose & trehalose.
Variable for substrate utilization and/or acid production from: trehalose.
(c) Costin Stoica