Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto), Clostridium oceanicum Smith 1970.
Gram-positive straight to curved rods, 0.3-1.6 x 1.7-25.7 µm, occuring singly or in
pairs. Long filaments may be seen in older cultures. Motile by peritrichous flagella;
some strains are nonmotile when incubated at 37 ºC but motile at 25 ºC. Spores are
oval to spherical, terminal/subterminal, usually do not swell the cell; sporulation of
most strains occurs most readily in chopped-meat glucose broth incubated at 30 ºC.
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are beta-hemolytic, 1-6 mm in diameter,
circular to irregular, flat or raised, translucent, gray and shiny, with an undulate or
scalloped margin and a crystalline mosaic internal structure. Cultures in PYG broth
are slightly turbid with a smooth or flocculent sediment and a pH of 5.0-5.7 after
incubation for 1 week. Slight growth in nutrient or cooked meat broth; moderate
growth with fermentable carbohydrate.
Optimum temperature for growth is 30-37 ºC. Grow at 25 ºC (weak); not at 45 ºC.
Range of pH 6.5-8.5. Growth is inhibited by 6.5% NaCl and 20% bile.
Moderate to abundant gas is detected in PYG deep agar cultures. Products in PYG
broth cultures include lactic, butyric, and acetic acids; abundant hydrogen is formed.
Isolated from marine sediments, human feces. Susceptible to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G & tetracycline.
Culture supernatants are nontoxic to mice. Nonpathogenic for laboratory animals. Toxin is not produced.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1974. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
Milk reaction is variable. Meat is digested.
Positive results for ammonia production, casein hydrolysis, DNase, esculin hydrolysis, H2S production, RNase, substrate utilization
and/or acid production from: fructose, glucose, maltose & mannose.
Negative results for indole production, lipase, nitrate reduction, urease, Voges-Proskauer reaction, substrate utilization and/or acid
production from: amygdalin, arabinose, esculin, glycogen, glycerol, inositol, inulin, lactose, mannitol, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose,
rhamnose, ribose, sorbitol, sorbose, starch, sucrose & xylose.
Variable or weak results for lecithinase, starch hydrolysis, substrate utilization and/or acid production from: cellobiose, galactose,
salicin (weak) & trehalose (weak).
(c) Costin Stoica