Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster XI (Clostridium
non-sensu stricto), Clostridium lituseburense (Laplanche and Saissac in Prévot 1948) McClung and McCoy 1957.
Historical synonyms: Inflabilis litus-eburense (sic) Laplanche and Saissac in Prevot Ann. Inst. Past., 74, 1948, 167.
Gram-positive, straight or slightly curved rods, 1.4-1.7 x 3.1-6.3 µm, occur singly, in
pairs or in short chains. Motile by peritrichous flagella. Spores are oval, central or
subterminal, may swell the cell or occur as free spores. Sporulation occurs readily in
chopped-meat broth cultures incubated for 24 hours.
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are beta-hemolytic, 1-3 mm in diameter,
circular, low convex, opaque with translucent margins, white, shiny, and smooth, with
a coarse granular internal structure and an entire to scalloped margin. Cultures in
PYG broth are turbid with a ropy sediment and a pH of 5.3 after incubation for 5 days.
Moderately good growth in nutrient broth, mucoid sediment.
Optimum temperature for growth is 30 ºC. Grow at 25 ºC and at 45 ºC. Growth is
inhibited by 6.5% NaCl and 20% bile. Traces of gas may be detected in PYG deep
agar cultures. Products in PYG broth cultures include large amounts of butyric, acetic,
and isovaleric acids.
Isolated from soil and humus from Côte d’Ivoire. The type strain is susceptible to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin,
penicillin G, and tetracycline.
Not pathogenic for guinea pigs or mice. Toxin is not produced.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1974. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition , The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
Milk reaction is weak. Meat is digested. Hydrogen production is weak and variable.
Positive results for ammonia production, casein hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, lecithinase, neutral red reduction, resazurin reduction,
substrate utilization and/or acid production from: fructose, glucose, maltose & sucrose (weak reaction).
Negative results for esculin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production, lipase, nitrate reduction, starch hydrolysis, urease,
Voges-Proskauer reaction, substrate utilization and/or acid production from: amygdalin, arabinose, cellobiose, dulcitol, esculin,
galactose, glycogen, glycerol, inositol, inulin, lactose, mannitol, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, salicin, sorbitol, sorbose,
starch, trehalose & xylose.
Variable and weak results for mannose & ribose.
(c) Costin Stoica