Taxonomy
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Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster XIVa (Clostridium non
sensu stricto),
Clostridium herbivorans  Varel, Tanner and Woese 1995.
Gram-positive, straight rods, 0.7-0.9 x 3.5-4.0 µm, occuring singly or in pairs. Motile by
15-20 peritrichous flagella. Spores are produced rarely, 1 x 2 µm long, subterminal /
terminal, swelling the sporangium. Cultures grown on insoluble substrates like
cellulose or plant cell walls readily produce spores.
Obligate anaerobe. Optimum temperature for growth is 39-42 ºC. No growth at 25 or
55 ºC. Optimum pH 6.8-7.2; range 5.8-8.0. Fermentable carbohydrates are required
for growth. Ruminal fluid (15%) and yeast extract (1%) stimulate growth.
Cellobiose is fermented to produce formate, butyrate, and little ethanol and hydrogen.
Isolated from pig intestine content.
Undetermined.
  1. N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 738-828.
  2. Varel V.H., Tanner R.S. and Woese C.R., 1995. Clostridium herbivorans sp. nov., a Cellulolytic Anaerobe from the Pig Intestine.
    IJSB 45, 3, 490-494.
Milk reaction is negative.

Positive results for H
2 production (small amounts), substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: cellobiose, cellulose, glycogen,
maltose & starch.

Negative results for catalase, esculin hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, indole production, lecithinase, nitrate reduction, oxidase, urease,
substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: amygdalin, arabinose, erythritol, fructose, galactose, glucose, inositol, lactose, mannitol,
mannose, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose, salicin, sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose & xylose.
Clostridium herbivorans
(c) Costin Stoica
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