Taxonomy
Morphology
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Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto),
Clostridium estertheticum Collins, Rodrigues, Dainty, Edwards and Roberts 1993 emended Spring, Merkhoffer, Weiss,
Kroppenstedt, Hippe and Stackebrandt 2003.
Divided in two subspecies:
- Cl. estertheticum subsp. estertheticum
- Cl. estertheticum subsp. laramiense.

Historical synonym: Clostridium laramiense Kalchayanand et al. 1993.
Gram-positive rods, 1.3-1.5 x 2.4-6.0 µm, occuring singly, in pairs or short chains.
Motile by peritrichous flagella. Spores are ellipsoidal, subterminal/terminal or central;
sporangium is slightly swollen.
Colonies on sheep-blood agar are 1-2 mm in diameter, round with often coarsely
granulated margins, smooth, slightly raised, cream-white to grayish & semitransparent
to opaque. Psychrophilic.

C. estertheticum subsp. laramiense produce beta-hemolysis. Optimum growth temperature 6-8 ºC, maximum 13 ºC. pH 5.5 -7.8.
C. estertheticum subsp. estertheticum is not hemolytic. Optimum temperature for growth is 15 ºC; range 3-21 ºC. Optimum pH 6.5,
range 4.5-7.5.
Isolated from vacuum-packaged refrigerated meat (both subspecies). The following antibiotics inhibit growth of C. estertheticum
subsp. laramiense
: ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, penicillin G, and tetracycline
C. estertheticum subsp. laramiense is non-toxic to mice.
  1. N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 738-828.
  2. Stefan Spring, Birgit Merkhoffer, Norbert Weiss, Reiner M. Kroppenstedt, Hans Hippe, and Erko Stackebrandt. Characterization of
    novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov., Clostridium
    lacusfryxellense sp. nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of
    Clostridium laramiense as Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense subsp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol July 2003 53:1019-
    1029.
The end products of fermentation are butyrate, acetate, lactate, formate, 1-butanol, ethanol, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Milk
reaction is negative and meat digestion is positive for
C. estertheticum subsp. laramiense.

Positive results for H2 production, starch hydrolysis, substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: galactose, glucose, inositol,
maltose, mannitol, mannose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, salicin, sorbitol, starch & sucrose.

Negative results for hydrolysis of gelatin, substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: amygdalin, lactose, melezitose, ribose &
trehalose.
Clostridium estertheticum
(c) Costin Stoica
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Indole production
Lecithinase
Lipase
Esculin hydrolysis
Nitrate reduction
Hemolysis
Subsp. estertheticum
nd
nd
nd
nd
nd
-
Subsp. laramiense
-
-
+
-
+
+
Differential characters between subspecies:
Legend: +  positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, d positive 25-74%, nd not determined
Utilization of:
Arabinose
Cellobiose
Fructose
Glycogen
Inulin
Xylose
Subsp. estertheticum
+
+
nd
-
+
+
Subsp. laramiense
d
d
+
+
d
d