Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto), Clostridium chauvoei (Arloing, Cornevin and Thomas 1887) Scott 1928.
Historical synonyms: Bacterium chauvoei Arloing, Cornevin and Thomas 1887;
Bacillus chauvaei (Arloing, Cornevin and Thomas 1887) Trevisan 1889.
Gram-positive (Gram-negative after 2-3 days) rods, 0.5-1.7 x 1.6-9.7 µm, pleomorphic
with irregular staining, occuring singly or in pairs. Motility is variable. Spores are oval,
central to subterminal, swelling the cell. Sporulation occurs readily both in broth and
on solid media.
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are 0.5-3 mm in diameter, beta-hemolytic, low
convex or raised, translucent to opaque, granular, shiny or dull, smooth, grayish white.
Cultures in PYG (peptone, yeast extract and glucose) broth are turbid with a smooth
sediment and have a pH of 5.0–5.4 after incubation for 4 days. Slight to moderate
growth in nutrient broth or cooked meat broth; gas production continues after growth
has ceased. Abundant gas is produced in PYG deep agar cultures.
Growth is inhibited by 6.5% NaCl, 20% bile, or a pH of 8.5. Grows at: 25-42 ºC, optimum at 37 ºC. Growth at 45 ºC is negative.
Growth is stimulated by fermentable carbohydrates. Produces in PYG broth: acetic, butyric & formic acids, butanol, CO2 , and H2 .
Habitat is probably the soil. Isolated from infections in cattle, sheep, and other animals; intestinal contents of cattle and dogs.
Susceptible to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, and tetracycline.
Pathogenic for laboratory animals (mice, guinea pigs, hamsters). Cattle, sheep, goats, swine, deer, mink, freshwater fish, whales,
and frogs are susceptible. Humans, birds, cats, dogs, and rabbits are resistant.
Has been isolated from wounds in dogs and cats, bovine infections.
Weak toxin is formed. Produce deoxyribonuclease (beta-toxin), hyaluronidase (gamma-toxin) and neuraminidase.
Is cause of blackleg in cattle and sheep.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1975. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition , The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
- Secasiu V., 2001. Boli produse de germeni din genul Clostridium. In: Boli infectioase ale animalelor, Moga Manzat R., Ed. Brumar,
H2 is produced very abundantly. Milk reaction: curd. Meat digestion is negative. Clostridium chauvoei can be differentiated from
Clostridium septicum, which it resembles most closely phenotypically, by its fermentation of sucrose and lack of fermentation of
cellobiose or trehalose.
Positive results for H2 production, DN-ase, esculin hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, neuraminidase, neutral red reduction, substrate
utilized and/or acid produced from: galactose (weak), glucose, lactose (weak), maltose (weak), mannose (weak) & sucrose (weak).
Negative results for H2S production, hydrolysis of casein, indole production, lecithinase, lipase, starch hydrolysis, urease,
Voges-Proskauer reaction, substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: amygdalin, arabinose, cellobiose, glycogen, glycerol,
inositol, inulin, mannitol, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, salicin, sorbitol, sorbose, starch, trehalose & xylose.
Variable results for nitrate reduction, resazurin reduction, substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: dulcitol, fructose & ribose.
(c) Costin Stoica