Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto), Clostridium baratii (Prevot 1938) Holdeman and Moore 1970.
Historical synonyms: Inflabilis barati Prevot 1938, Clostridium perenne (Prevot 1940) McClung and McCoy 1957, Clostridium
paraperfringens Nakamura, Tamai and Nishida 1970.
Gram-positive, straight rods, 0.5-1.9 x 1.6-10.2 µm, occur singly or in pairs.
Nonmotile. Spores are round/oval, subterminal/terminal, and swell the cell; sporulate
poorly and spores may be found more readily in chopped-meat carbohydrate broth or
PY broth cultures.
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are 0.5–2 mm in diameter, circular to irregular,
entire to lobate, flat to low convex, granular to mosaic, translucent to opaque, with a
smooth, shiny surface. Hemolysis is variable. Cultures in PYG broth are turbid with a
heavy sediment and have a pH of 4.5–4.8 after incubation for 5 days. Slight growth in
Growth is inhibited in 6.5% NaCl and by 20% bile. Optimum growth at 30-45 ºC.
Growth is stimulated by fermentable carbohydrates. Abundant gas is detected in PYG
deep agar cultures. Major products of metabolism in PYG broth: acetic, lactic and
butyric acids, abundant H2.
Isolated from normal human and rat feces; war wounds; peritoneal fluid, infections of the eye, ear, and prostate; soil; sediments in
Puget Sound; soil from Antarctica. Sensitive to penicillin G, chloramphenicol and tetracycline.
Pathogenic for broilers. Nonpathogenic for laboratory animals. Isolated from human infections of the eye, ear, and prostate.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1975. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition , The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
- Secasiu V., 2001. Boli produse de germeni din genul Clostridium. In: Boli infectioase ale animalelor, Moga Manzat R., Ed.
Brumar, Timisoara, 481-612.
- Cato E.P., Holdeman L.V. and Moore W.E.C., 1982. Clostridium perenne and Clostridium paraperfringens: Later Subjective
Synonyms of Clostridium barati. IJSB 32, 1, 77-81.
H2 is produced in large amounts. Milk reaction is variable. Meat digestion is negative.
Positive results for ammonia production, esculin hydrolysis, H2S production, lecithinase, neutral red reduction, resazurin reduction,
substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: cellobiose, fructose, galactose (weak), glucose, lactose (weak), maltose (weak),
mannose, salicin (weak) & sucrose.
Negative results for catalase, hydrolysis of gelatin, indole production, lipase, urease, substrate utilized and/or acid produced from:
arabinose, amygdalin, dulcitol, erythritol, glycerol, inositol, inulin, mannitol, melezitose, raffinose, rhamnose, sorbitol, sorbose,
trehalose & xylose.
Variable results for nitrate reduction, starch hydrolysis, Voges-Proskauer, substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: glycogen,
melibiose (weak), ribose (weak) & starch.
(c) Costin Stoica