Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto), Clostridium aminovalericum Hardman and Stadtman 1960.
Gram-positive (Gram-negative in maximum stationary phase) straight rods, 0.3-0.5 x
1.5-5.2 µm ; occur singly and in pairs in PYG broth cultures (peptone, yeast extract &
glucose). Motile by peritrichous flagella. Spores are spherical, small, terminal,
swelling the cell.
Sporulation occurs most reliably on chopped-meat agar slants incubated at 30 ºC for
5 days. Surface colonies on blood agar plates are 0.5–1 mm, translucent to opaque,
flat to convex, granular, gray, dull, smooth, and weakly haemolytic.
Moderate growth in nutrient broth +/- fermentable carbohydrate. Abundant gas is
produced in PYG agar deep cultures. Cultures in PYG broth are turbid with a smooth
sediment and have a pH of 5.9-6.2 after incubation for 1 week. Growth is inhibited by
6.5% NaCl and by 20% bile.
Grows at: 25-45 ºC, optimum 37 ºC. Produces acetic acid and H2 in PYG broth.
Isolated from sewage sludge, rumen contents of bloating calves, urine specimens from pregnant women with bacteriuria, hamster
feces, and human feces.
The type strain is sensitive to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, penicillin G and tetracycline.
Culture supernatants of the type strain are not toxic to mice. Nonpathogenic for laboratory animals.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1975. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition , The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
H2 is produced very abundantly. Milk reaction is negative. Strongly ferments aminovaleric acid.
Positive results for DN-ase, hydrolysis of hippurate, neutral red reduction, resazurin reduction, esculin hydrolysis, starch hydrolysis, ,
substrate utilization and/or acid production from glucose.
Negative results for H2S production, indole production, lecithinase, Voges-Proskauer test, substrate utilization and/or acid production
from: adonitol, amygdalin, arabinose, cellulose, dulcitol, fructose, galactose, glycogen, glycerol, inositol, inulin, lactose, maltose,
mannitol, mannose, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose, salicin, sorbitol, starch, sucrose, trehalose & xylose.
Variable results for nitrate reduction and substrate utilization and/or acid production from cellobiose.
(c) Costin Stoica