Colonies on R2A agar after 48h incubation at 25 ºC, are round, entire, convex and
pale-yellow-pigmented, 0.8–1.0 mm in diameter. Growth occurs at 15-42 ºC, optimally
at 25-35 ºC. Can grow in pH 6.0-8.0, optimally in pH 7.0-8.0. Can grow in 0-1% (w/v)
NaCl, optimally in 0% NaCl. Aerobic.
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Chromobacteriaceae, Genus Pseudogulbenkiania,
Pseudogulbenkiania subflava Lin et al. 2008, type species of the genus.
Gram-negative rods, 0.2-0.5 x 1.0-1.6 μm. Motile by means of a polar flagellum.
Spores are not formed. Accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate.
Isolated from a water sample of a cold spring located in the Hsinchu area of northern Taiwan.
Sensitive to tetracycline, kanamycin, rifampicin, gentamicin, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, novobiocin, streptomycin,
ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim.
  1. Lin M.C., Chou J.H., Arun A.B., Young C.C. and Chen W.M.: Pseudogulbenkiania subflava gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a cold
    spring. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 2384-2388.
  2. Euzeby (J.P.): List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,
    1997, 47, 590-592. (List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature.
Positive results for acid and alkaline phosphatase, C4 esterase, C8 esterase lipase,
alpha-glucosidase, leucine arylamidase, naphthol-AS-BIphosphohydrolase, nitrate reduction & oxidase.
Can utilize alpha-D-glucose, maltose, D-gluconate, caprate, malate and citrate.
Can utilize in Biolog GN: Tween 80, alpha-D-glucose, maltose, sucrose, trehalose, turanose, pyruvic acid methyl ester, succinic acid
monomethyl ester, formic acid, D-gluconic acid, DL-lactic acid, quinic acid, succinic acid, bromosuccinic acid, L-alanine,
L-asparagine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, hydroxy-L-proline, L-leucine, L-ornithine, L-proline, DL-carnitine,
gamma-aminobutyric acid & urocanic acid.

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, cystine arylamidase, alpha-fucosidase, beta-glucosidase, alpha- and beta-galactosidase,
beta-glucuronidae, indole production, C14 lipase, alpha-mannosidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, nitrite reduction to N2,
protease,  trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, urease, valine arylamidase, acid production from amygdalin, L-arabinose, D-glucose,
glycogen, myo-inositol, alpha-D-lactose, maltose, D-mannitol, melibiose, L-rhamnose, ribose, D-sorbitol, sucrose & xylose.
No utilization of arabinose, mannose, mannitol, N-acetylglucosamine, adipate & phenylacetate.
Cannot utilize in Biolog GN: alpha-cyclodextrin, dextrin, glycogen, Tween 40, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine,
adonitol, L-arabinose, D-arabitol, cellobiose, i-erythritol, D-fructose, L-fucose, D-galactose, gentiobiose, myo-inositol,
alpha-D-lactose, lactulose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, melibiose, methyl beta-D-glucoside, D-psicose, raffinose, L-rhamnose,
D-sorbitol, xylitol, acetic acid, cis-aconitic acid, citric acid, D-galactonic acid lactone, D-galacturonic acid, D-glucosaminic acid,
D-glucuronic acid, alpha-hydroxybutyric acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, itaconic
acid, alpha-ketobutyric acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, alpha-ketovaleric acid, malonic acid, propionic acid, D-saccharic acid, sebacic
acid, succinamic acid, glucuronamide, L-alaninamide, D-alanine, L-alanyl glycine, glycyl L-aspartic acid, glycyl L-glutamic acid,
L-phenylalanine, L-pyroglutamic acid, D-serine, L-serine, L-threonine, inosine, uridine, thymidine, phenylethylamine, putrescine,
2-aminoethanol, 2,3-butanediol, glycerol, DL-alpha-glycerol phosphate, alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, or D-glucose 6-phosphate.
Pseudogulbenkiania subflava
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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