Colonies are colorless, translucent, circular, convex, with an entire margin, up to 0.2
mm in diameter. Anaerobic, having a fermentative type of metabolism. Growth occurs
at 30-35 ºC, but not at 25 ºC or 40 ºC. Grows at pH 7.1-7.9, but not at pH 6.7 or 8.2.
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Chromobacteriaceae, Genus Formivibrio, Formivibrio
citricus Tanaka et al. 1991, type species of the genus.
Gram-negative, curved rods, 0.5-0.6 x 1.1-2.5 μm. Motile by one polar flagellum. Cells
contain beta-hydroxymyristic acid. Spores are not formed.
Isolated from anoxic mud samples of a creek and from a pond.
- Tanaka K., Nakamura K. and Mikami E.: Fermentation of S-citramalate, citrate, mesaconate, and pyruvate by a gram-negative
strictly anaerobic non-spore-former, Formivibrio citricus gen. nov., sp. nov. Arch. Microbiol., 1991, 155, 491-495.
- Sato K., Kato Y., Taguchi G., Nogawa M., Yokota A. and Shimosaka M.: Chitiniphilus shinanonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel
chitin-degrading bacterium belonging to Betaproteobacteria. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 2009, 55, 147-153.
- Euzeby (J.P.): List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,
1997, 47, 590-592. (List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. http://www.bacterio.net).
S-citramalate, citrate, mesaconate, and pyruvate are fermented to acetate and formate
and serve as carbon and energy sources.
Negative results for catalase, chitin hydrolysis, esculin hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, beta-glucosidase, indole production, nitrate
reduction, sulfate reduction, sulfite reduction, thiosulfate reduction, S0 reduction, urease.
Does not utilize acetoin, acrylate, citraconate, R-citramalate, crotonate, fumarate, L-glutamate, glycerol, H2/CO2/acetate, lactate,
DL-threo-beta-methylaspartate, L-malate, maleate, oxalate/acetate, peptones, yeast extract, or carbohydrates.
(c) Costin Stoica