Colonies on R2A agar are 1-2.5 mm in diameter, opaque with a smooth, shiny
surface and butyrous with entire margins. Colonies on Columbia agar are grey-white,
umbonate, 3.2-4 mm in diameter, on H3P are cream–white, 0.5-0.7 mm and on BTS
are cream-white, 1.0-2.2 mm. Aerobic, facultatively anaerobic. Growth occurs at 4-32
ºC (optimum 28 ºC), optimum pH 7.3-7.6. Grows in 0-2% NaCl media.
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Chromobacteriaceae, Genus Deefgea, Deefgea rivuli
Stackebrandt et al. 2007, type species of the genus.
Gram-negative rods, with one round end and one pointed end, 0.7-0.8 x 3-4 μm, up to
7 μm in older cultures. Motile by one polar flagellum. Highly motile at temperatures
below 10 ºC. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate accumulation is observed.
Isolated from water of the Westerhofer Bach, near Westerhof, Lower Saxony, Germany.
Resistant to penicillin G, oxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, pipemidic acid, erythromycin, vancomycin, lincomycin;
intermediately susceptible to norfloxacin, ofloxacin, colistin; susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, imipenem and doxycycline.
  1. Erko Stackebrandt, Elke Lang, Sylvie Cousin, Orsola Pauker, Evelyne Brambilla, Reiner Kroppenstedt and Heinrich Lunsdorf: :
    Deefgea rivuli gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the class Betaproteobacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 639-645.
  2. Chen W.M., Chung Y.N., Chiu T.F., Cheng C.Y., Arun A.B. and Sheu S.Y.: Deefgea chitinilytica sp. nov., isolated from a wetland. Int.
    J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1450-1453.
  3. Sato K., Kato Y., Taguchi G., Nogawa M., Yokota A. and Shimosaka M.: Chitiniphilus shinanonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel
    chitin-degrading bacterium belonging to Betaproteobacteria. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 2009, 55, 147-153.
  4. Yoon J.H., Choi J.H., Kang S.J., Choi N.S., Lee J.S. and Song J.J.: Jeongeupia naejangsanensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a cellulose-
    degrading bacterium isolated from forest soil from Naejang Mountain in Korea. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 615-619.
  5. Euzeby (J.P.): List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,
    1997, 47, 590-592. (List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature.
Most results are based on API Biomerieux and Biolog GN2 tests.

Positive results for catalase, nitrate reduction to nitrite, oxidase, acid production from glucose (negative in Chen's study) & sucrose.
Can utilize in API 20 NE (weakly): glucose, N-acetylglucosamine & gluconate.
Can utilize in API 50 CH + AUX medium: ribose, glucose, fructose, N-acetylglucosamine,sucrose & gluconate.
Oxidize in Biolog GN2: dextrin, N-acetylglucosamine, D-fructose, beta-D-glucose; D-mannose (weak), methylpyruvate (weak) and
beta-hydroxybutyric acid (weak).

Negative results for alkaline phosphatase, chitin hydrolysis (weak positive in Chen's study), cellulose hydrolysis, casein hydrolysis,
DNase, gelatin hydrolysis, beta-glucosidase, starch hydrolysis & xylan hydrolysis.
Deefgea rivuli
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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