Colonies are tan-colored and smooth on TSA medium after 24 h at 30 ºC. Growth
occurs on nutrient agar, MacConkey agar and R2A agar. Non-fluorescent. A violet
pigment is produced. Hemolytic on 5% sheep blood agar.
Facultatively anaerobic.
Growth temperature range 15-40 ºC (optimum 30 ºC). The optimal pH for growth is 7;
growth occurs
at pH 5 and 10. Growth occurs in the presence of 0-3.5% (w/v) NaCl.
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Chromobacteriaceae, Genus Chromobacterium,
Chromobacterium rhizoryzae
Zhou et al. 2016.
Gram-negative rods, 0.4-0.5 / 1.6–2.2 μm. Motile by means of a single polar flagellum.
Intracellular poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate g
ranules are formed.
Isolated from the roots of rice planted in the Experimental Demonstration Base at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan city, China.
Sensitive to polymyxin B, kanamycin, tetracycline, chloromycetin, streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tetracycline, minocycline,
levofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and nitrofurantonin.
Resistant to resistant to ampicillin, carbenicillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, rifampicin, fusidic acid and cotrimoxazole.
  1. Shan Zhou, Xiang Guo, Huimin Wang, Delong Kong, Yanwei Wang, Jie Zhu, Weiwei Dong, Mingxiong He, Guoquan Hu, Bingqiang
    Zhao, Bin Zhao and Zhiyong Ruan. 2016. Chromobacterium rhizoryzae sp. nov., isolated from rice roots. IJSEM 66: 3890-3896,
    doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.001284.
  2. Euzeby (J.P.): List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,
    1997, 47, 590-592. (List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature.
Description is based on API ZYM, API 20 E, API 20 NE and Biolog GN2 MicroPlate results.

Positive results for
acid and alkaline phosphatase, arginine dihydrolase, catalase, casein hydrolysis, lecithinase, lipase, nitrate
reduction to nitrite, butyrate esterase (C4), caprylate esterase (C8) (weakly), myristate lipase (C14) (weakly), valine arylamidase
(weakly), alpha-chymotrypsin, naphthol-ASBI-phosphohydrolase, gelatinase
& N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase.
Can utilize: dextrin, glycogen, Tween 40, Tween 80, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, L-arabinose, D-fructose,
alpha-D-glucose, myo-inositol, D-mannitol, D-psicose, D-trehalose, pyruvic acid methyl ester, acetic acid, cis-aconitic acid, citric
D-gluconic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, alpha-ketobutyric acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, DL-lactic acid, propionic acid, bromosuccinic
acid, L-alaninamide, D-alanine, L-alanine, L-alanyl glycine, L-asparagine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, glycyl-L-glutamic acid, L-
histidine, hydroxy-L-proline, L-leucine, L-ornithine, L-phenylalanine, L-pyroglutamic acid, D-serine, L-serine, L-threonine, urocanic
acid, uridine, thymidine, putrescine, adipic acid, trisodium citrate, phenylacetic acid, glycerol, DL-a
lpha-glycerol phosphate, alpha-D-
glucose-1-phosphate, D-glucose-6-phosphate, D-arabitol, succinic acid monomethyl ester, maltose, D-mannose, formic acid, alpha-
ketovaleric acid, L-proline, g
amma-aminobutyric acid, potassium gluconate, capric acid, malic acid, N-acetylglucosamine & inosine.

Negative results for acetoin production, cystine arylamidase, alpha-fucosidase,  H
2S production, indole production, alpha- and beta-
galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, lysine
decarboxylase, alpha-mannosidase, oxidase, trypsin,
tryptophan deaminas
e & urease.
No utilization of: alpha-cyclodextrin, adonitol, D-cellobiose, D-sorbitol, i-erythritol, L-fucose, D-galactose, gentiobiose, alpha-D-lactose,
lactulose, D-melibiose, beta-methyl-D-glucoside, D-raffinose, L-rhamnose, sucrose, turanose, xylitol, D-galactonic acid lactone, D-
galacturonic acid, D-glucosaminic acid, D-glucuronic acid, alpha-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, p-
hydroxyphenlyacetic acid, itaconic acid, malonic acid, quinic acid, sebacic acid, succinamic acid, glucuronamide, DL-carnitine,
phenylethylamine, 2-aminoethanol, 2,3-butanediol & amygdalin.
Chromobacterium rhizoryzae
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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