No growth occurs in the presence of 3% NaCl, 1% oxgall or 1% glycine. Aerobic. No
alkaline reaction in litmus milk.
Subsp. serpens
Growth temperature 12-44 ºC, 35 ºC optimum. Can grow at pH 9. No brown pigments
in media with aromatic components; some strains do produce water-soluble
fluorescent pigments. Can grow on EMB agar. Variable growth on MacConkey agar,
TSI and Sellers agar.
Subsp. bengal
Growth temperature 12-42 ºC, 41 ºC optimum. Can grow at pH up to 8.4. Brown
pigments can be formed on media containing 0.1% tyrosine or tryptophan.
Water-soluble fluorescent pigments are not produced. No growth on EMB agar,
MacConkey agar, TSI and Sellers agar.
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Chromobacteriaceae, Genus Aquaspirillum,
Aquaspirillum serpens (Müller 1786) Hylemon et al. 1973 - type species of the genus.

- Aquaspirillum serpens subsp. serpens (Muller 1786) Hylemon et al. 1973,
- Aquaspirillum serpens subsp. bengal  Kumar et al 1974.
According to Boivin et al. 1985,
Aquaspirillum bengal Kumar et al. 1974 is a later heterotypic synonym of Aquaspirillum serpens.

Old synonyms: "Vibrio serpens" Müller 1786, "Spirillum serpens" (Müller 1786) Winter 1884.
Gram-negative, rigid, helical cells, 0.6-1.1 / 3.5-42.0 μm - subsp. serpens and 0.9-2.2 / 5.2-22.0 μm - subsp. bengal. Motile by bipolar
flagella. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate is formed.
Habitat: pond water.
Undetermined.
  1. Tone Tonjum, 2005. Order IV. Neisseriales ord. nov. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol two, part
    C The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 774-863.
Positive results for catalase, oxidase, phosphatase. Can utilize as sole carbon source: L-glutamate & L-aspartate.

Negative results for casein hydrolysis, denitrification, esculin hydrolysis, hippurate hydrolysis, indole production, starch hydrolysis,
trybutirin hydrolysis, acid production from: fructose, glucose & ribose. Cannot utilize as sole carbon source: L-arginine, L-lysine,
L-methionine, L-cysteine, glycine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-valine, citrate, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, glycerol, D-fructose,
D-glucose, D-xylose, L-arabinose, L-histidine & L-tyrosine.

Differential characters:
Aquaspirillum serpens
(c) Costin Stoica
Antibiogram
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Legend: + positive,  - negative,  d variable.
 
Urease
Nitrate only
reduced to
nitrite
Gelatin
hydrolysis (4
days at 30 ºC)
DN-ase
L-serine
L-alanine
L-glutamine
Asparagine
Fumarate
Malate
Succinate
Subsp.
serpens
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
Subsp.
bengal
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+