Temperature growth range is 11-40 ºC. Grows in the presence of 1% bile but not 1%
glycine or 3% NaCl. Can grow on EMB, TSI, and Seller agars, but not on MacConkey
agar or in MRVP broth. A yellow, water-soluble pigment is formed from phenylalanine;
no pigments are formed from tryptophan or tyrosine. Range of pH for growth is 5.5-9.0.
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Chromobacteriaceae, Genus Aquaspirillum,
Aquaspirillum peregrinum subsp. integrum (Terasaki 1973) Terasaki 1979;
Aquaspirillum peregrinum subsp. peregrinum (Pretorius 1963) Terasaki 1979
Old synonyms:
Spirillum peregrinum subsp. integrum Terasaki 1973, Levispirillum peregrinum (Pretorius 1963) Hylemon et al. 1973.
Moved to genus Insolitispirillum as
- Insolitispirillum peregrinum subsp. integrum (Terasaki 1973) Yoon et al. 2007;
- Insolitispirillum peregrinum subsp. peregrinum (Pretorius 1963) Yoon et al. 2007.
Gram-negative, helical cells, 0.5-0.7 / 1.5-22.0 μm. Motile by bipolar flagella.
Intracellular poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate is formed. Cells may develop into thin-walled
coccoid bodies (“microcysts”) within several days to several weeks.
Subsp. integrum
fails to form coccoid bodies as a predominant form even after 28 days of incubation.
Isolated from a primary oxidation pond and from the putrid infusion of a freshwater mussel. Susceptible to carbenicillin, streptomycin,
gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin & neomycin. Resistant to novobiocin, penicillin G, ampicillin, cephalothin &
  1. Tone Tonjum, 2005. Order IV. Neisseriales ord. nov. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol two, part
    C The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 774-863.
  2. Euzeby (J.P.): List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,
    1997, 47, 590-592. (List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. http://www.bacterio.net).
  3. Hylemon (P.B.), Wells Jr. (J.S.), Krieg (N.R.) and Jannasch (H.W.): The genus Spirillum: A taxonomic study. International Journal of
    Systematic Bacteriology, 1973, 23, 340-380.
  4. Yoon (J.H.), Kang (S.J.), Park (S.), Lee (S.Y.) and Oh (T.K.): Reclassification of Aquaspirillum itersonii and Aquaspirillum
    peregrinum as Novispirillum itersonii gen. nov., comb. nov. and Insolitispirillum peregrinum gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol., 2007, 57, 2830-2835.
Positive results for alkaline reaction in litmus milk, catalase, esculin hydrolysis, esterase (C4), esterase lipase (C8), leucine
arylamidase, H
2S production from 0.01% or 0.2% cystine (in 7 days incubation), nitrate reduction, nitrite reduction, oxidase,
phosphatase, selenite reduction & urease. Fructose is acidified. Can utilize glutamate, acetate, alpha-Ketoglutarate, succinate,
fumarate, malate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate, lactate, malonate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, D-fructose, L-alanine, L-glutamate, L-aspartate,
L-glutamine, asparagine, L-proline & L-hydroxyproline.

Negative results for casein hydrolysis, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, alpha- and beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, gelatin
hydrolysis (4 days incubation at 30 ºC; but positive after 28 days), hippurate hydrolysis, indole production, ribonuclease, DN-ase,  
starch hydrolysis. Cannot utilize: aconitate, isocitrate, citrate, tartrate, n-propanol, n-butanol, glycerol, D-glucose, D- and L- xylose, D-
and L-arabinose, L-tyrosine, L-phenylalaninecaproate, glycine, histidine, tryptophan, p-hydroxybenzoate, ethanol, L-ornithine,
L-citrulline, L-arginine, L-lysine, putrescine, L-methionine, L-serine, L-cysteine, L-leucine, L-Isoleucine, L-valine, ribose, adonitol,
beta-methyl-D-xyloside, galactose, mannose, sorbose, rhamnose, dulcitol, inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, N-acetylglucosamine,
amygdalin, arbutin, salicin, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, melibiose, sucrose, trehalose, inulin, melezitose, raffinose, starch, glycogen,
xylitol, gentiobiose, D-turanose, D-lyxose, D-tagatose, D- and L-fucose, D- and L-arabitol, gluconate, 2- and 5-ketogluconate

Variable utilization of propionate.
Aquaspirillum peregrinum
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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