Aerobic but can grow anaerobically using nitrate. Can grow at 15 ºC, not at 10 or 44
ºC. Grows in the presence of 1% bile, but not in the presence of 3% NaCl.
Subsp.
nipponicum
can grow in 1% glycine (subsp. itersonii not). Both subspecies can grow
on TSI, EMB, Sellers and MacConkey agars. Can grow in MRVP broth.  
Subsp.
itersonii
can produce a water-soluble yellow-green fluorescent pigment or
water-soluble brown pigment in the presence of tyrosine or tryptophan (no data
available for
subsp. nipponicum). Range of pH for growth is 6.0-9.0.
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Chromobacteriaceae, Genus Aquaspirillum,
-
Aquaspirillum itersonii subsp. itersonii (Giesberger 1936) Terasaki 1979;
- Aquaspirillum itersonii subsp. nipponicum (Terasaki 1973) Terasaki 1979.
Old synonyms:
Levispirillum itersonii Hylemon et al. 1973, Spirillum itersonii subsp. nipponicum Terasaki 1973.
Moved to genus Novispirillum as
-
Novispirillum itersonii subsp. itersonii (Giesberger 1936) Yoon et al. 2007;
-
Novispirillum itersonii subsp. nipponicum (Terasaki 1973) Yoon et al. 2007.
Gram-negative, helical cells, 0.4-0.6 / 2.0-10.0 μm - subsp. itersonii and 0.5-0.8 / 2.0-
10.0μm -
subsp. nipponicum. Motile by bipolar flagella. Intracellular poly-beta-
hydroxybutyrate is formed. Cells may develop into thin-walled coccoid bodies
(“microcysts”) within several days to several weeks.
Isolated from pond water and from putrid infusions of freshwater mussels. Susceptible to novobiocin, streptomycin, gentamicin,  
chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin & neomycin. Resistant to carbenicillin, penicillin G, ampicillin, cephalothin & oleandomycin.
Undetermined.
  1. Tone Tonjum, 2005. Order IV. Neisseriales ord. nov. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol two, part
    C The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 774-863.
  2. Euzeby (J.P.): List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,
    1997, 47, 590-592. (List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. http://www.bacterio.net).
  3. Hylemon (P.B.), Wells Jr. (J.S.), Krieg (N.R.) and Jannasch (H.W.): The genus Spirillum: A taxonomic study. International Journal of
    Systematic Bacteriology, 1973, 23, 340-380.
  4. Yoon (J.H.), Kang (S.J.), Park (S.), Lee (S.Y.) and Oh (T.K.): Reclassification of Aquaspirillum itersonii and Aquaspirillum
    peregrinum as Novispirillum itersonii gen. nov., comb. nov. and Insolitispirillum peregrinum gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol., 2007, 57, 2830-2835.
Positive results for alkaline phosphatase, catalase, esculin hydrolysis, esterase (C4), esterase lipase (C8), H2S production from
0.2% cysteine, nitrate reduction, nitrite reduction, denitrification, oxidase, phosphatase, deoxyribonuclease, ribonuclease & tyrosine
hydrolysis. Fructose is acidified. Can acidify glucose media under semi-anaerobic conditions, but not under aerobic conditions.
Glycerol is acidified only aerobically. Can utilize as sole carbon source: aconitate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate,
beta-hydroxybutyrate, D-fructose, L-histidine, L-phenylalanine, L-glutamate, L-aspartate, L-glutamine, asparagine & L-proline.

Negative results for casein hydrolysis, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, alpha- and beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, gelatin
hydrolysis (4 days incubation at 30 ºC), hippurate hydrolysis, indole production, starch hydrolysis & urease. Cannot utilize: citrate,
esculin, erythritol, isocitrate, tartrate, caproate, p-hydroxybenzoate, D-glucose, D-xylose, galactose, mannose, sorbose, rhamnose,
dulcitol, inositol, mannitol, sorbitol,  D- and L-arabinose, amygdalin, arbutin, salicin, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, melibiose, sucrose,
trehalose, inulin, melezitose, raffinose, starch, glycogen, xylitol, gentiobiose, D-turanose, D-lyxose, D-tagatose, D- and L-fucose, D-
and L-arabitol, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, L-serine, glycine, gluconate, 2- and 5-ketogluconate, L-isoleucine, trypsin, & L-tryptophan.

Variable utilization of acetate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate, lactate, malonate, propionate, butyrate, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, glycerol,
L-alanine, L-hydroxyproline, L-ornithine, L-citrulline, L-arginine, L-lysine, putrescine, L-cysteine, L-leucine & L-valine.
Aquaspirillum itersonii
(c) Costin Stoica
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Legend: +, Positive reaction; −, negative reaction; w, weakly positive reaction.
Differential
characters
Alkaline reaction
in litmus milk
1% glycine
growth
Glycerol
utilization
Leucine
arylamidase
Acid phosphatase
Susceptible to
Polymyxin B
Susceptible to
Lincomycin
Subsp. itersonii
-
-
-
w
w
w
-
Subsp. nipponicum
+
+
+
-
-
-
+