Produce spreading, semitransparent colonies below the surface of a medium
containing 1.0% agar, losing the ability to diffuse after prolonged subculturing, and
forming small, nonspreading colonies. Aerobic / microaerophilic. Optimum growth
temperature is 30 ºC. No growth at 10 or 42 ºC. Biotin is required for growth. Grows in
the presence of 1% bile, but not in the presence of 3% NaCl or 1% glycine. Can grow
on EMB agar, but not on TSI, Sellers and MacConkey agar. No growt in MRVP broth.  
Can produce a water-soluble yellow-green fluorescent pigment (variable character).
No production of water-soluble brown pigment in the presence of tyrosine or
tryptophan.
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Chromobacteriaceae, Genus Aquaspirillum,
Aquaspirillum gracile (Canale-Parola et al. 1966) Hylemon et al. 1973.
Moved to genus Hylemonella as
Hylemonella gracilis (Canale-Parola et al. 1966) Spring et al. 2004.
Old synonym:
Spirillum gracile Canale-Parola et al. 1966.
Gram-negative, helical, small cells, 0.2-0.3 / 3.5-14.0 μm. Motile by bipolar flagella.
Intracellular poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate is not formed.
Isolated from pond and stream water.
Undetermined.
  1. Tone Tonjum, 2005. Order IV. Neisseriales ord. nov. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol two, part
    C The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 774-863.
  2. Euzeby (J.P.): List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,
    1997, 47, 590-592. (List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. http://www.bacterio.net).
  3. Hylemon (P.B.), Wells Jr. (J.S.), Krieg (N.R.) and Jannasch (H.W.): The genus Spirillum: A taxonomic study. International Journal of
    Systematic Bacteriology, 1973, 23, 340-380.
  4. Canale-Parola (E.), Rosenthal (S.L.) and Kupfer (D.G.): Morphological and physiological characteristics of Spirillum gracile sp. n.
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Journal of Microbiology and Serology, 1966, 32, 113-124.
Positive results for catalase, gelatin hydrolysis (4 days incubation at 30 ºC), H2S production from 0.2% cysteine, nitrate reduction only to
nitrite, oxidase, phosphatase, deoxyribonuclease, ribonuclease & urease.
Can utilize as sole carbon source: glutamate, L-aspartate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, lactate, pyruvate, acetate & glycerol.

Negative results for alkaline reaction in litmus milk, casein hydrolysis, esculin hydrolysis, hippurate hydrolysis, indole production,
denitrification & starch hydrolysis.
Cannot utilize as sole carbon source: malate, fumarate, citrate, propionate, ethanol, D-fructose, D-glucose, D-xylose & L-arabinose.
Aquaspirillum gracile
(c) Costin Stoica
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