No growth in the presence of 3% NaCl or 1% glycine. No growth on TSI, EMB, Sellers
or MacConkey agars. Grows in the presence of 1% bile and in MRVP broth. Aerobic.
Growth temperature range is 9-36 ºC, 30 ºC optimum. No production of water-soluble
yellow-green fluorescent pigment or water-soluble brown pigment in the presence of
tyrosine or tryptophan. Range of pH for growth is 6.0-9.0.
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
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Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Chromobacteriaceae, Genus Aquaspirillum,
Aquaspirillum giesbergeri (Williams and Rittenberg 1957) Hylemon et al. 1973.
Moved to genus Giesbergeria as
Giesbergeria giesbergeri (Williams and Rittenberg 1957) Grabovich et al. 2006.
Old synonym:
Spirillum giesbergeri Williams and Rittenberg 1957.
Gram-negative, helical cells, 0.7-1.4 / 4.0-40.0 μm. Motile by bipolar flagella.
Intracellular poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate is formed.
Isolated from pond water.
Undetermined.
  1. Tone Tonjum, 2005. Order IV. Neisseriales ord. nov. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol two, part
    C The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 774-863.
  2. Euzeby (J.P.): List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,
    1997, 47, 590-592. (List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. http://www.bacterio.net).
  3. Hylemon (P.B.), Wells Jr. (J.S.), Krieg (N.R.) and Jannasch (H.W.): The genus Spirillum: A taxonomic study. International Journal of
    Systematic Bacteriology, 1973, 23, 340-380.
  4. Grabovich M, Gavrish E, Kuever J, Lysenko A, Podkopaeva D, Dubinina G. Proposal of Giesbergeria voronezhensis gen. nov., sp.
    nov. and G. kuznetsovii sp. nov. and reclassification of [Aquaspirillum] anulus, [A.] sinuosum and [A.] giesbergeri as Giesbergeria
    anulus comb. nov., G. sinuosa comb. nov. and G. giesbergeri comb. nov., and [Aquaspirillum] metamorphum and [A.]
    psychrophilum as Simplicispira metamorpha gen. nov., comb. nov. and S. psychrophila comb. nov.Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56(3):
    569-576.
Positive results for catalase, H2S production from 0.2% cysteine, oxidase, phosphatase, deoxyribonuclease, ribonuclease & urease.
Can utilize as sole carbon source: pyruvate.

Negative results for alkaline reaction in litmus milk, casein hydrolysis, esculin hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis (4 days incubation at 30 ºC),
hippurate hydrolysis, indole production, nitrate reduction only to nitrite, denitrification, starch hydrolysis, acid production from sugars.
Cannot utilize as sole carbon source: acetate, aconitate, isocitrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, malate, oxaloacetate, citrate,
propionate, caproate, lactate, malonate, putrescine, beta-hydroxybutyrate, p-hydroxybenzoate, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, glycerol,
D-fructose, D-glucose, D-xylose, L-arabinose, L-histidine, L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, L-alanine, L-glutamate, L-aspartate,
L-glutamine, asparagine, L-proline, L-hydroxyproline, L-ornithine, L-citrulline, L-arginine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-serine,L-cysteine,
glycine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-valine & L-tryptophan.

Variable results for the utilization of butyrate & fumarate.
Aquaspirillum giesbergeri
(c) Costin Stoica
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