Paenibacillus (Bacillus) polymyxa
Taxonomy
Morphology
Growth conditions
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Paenibacillaceae, Genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus polymyxa
(Prazmowski 1880) Ash et al. 1994
Old synonyms:
Clostridium polymyxa Prazmowski 1880, Granulobacter polymyxa (Prazmowsky) Beijerinck 1893, Aerobacillus
polymyxa
(Prazmowsky) Donker 1926, Bacillus polymyxa (Prazmowsky) Mace 1889, Astasia asterospora  Meyer 1897, Bacillus
asterosporus
(Meyer) Migula 1900, Aerobacillus asterosporus (Meyer) Donker 1926, Bacillus aerosporus Greer 1928.
Gram-positive, Gram-variable or Gram-negative rods, 2.0-5.0 x 0.6-0.8 μm.  Motile by peritrichous flagella. Spores are ellipsoidal,
central, subterminal or terminal; swelling the sporangia. Spores have a heavily ridged surface. S-layers (extracellular pollysaccharide)
are present.
Colonies on nutrient agar thin; often with amoeboid  spreading. On glucose agar
usually heaped, mucoid with matt surface. Adherent to agar medium. Aerobic,
facultative anaerobic.Growth temperature  from  5-10 ºC  to  35-45 ºC (optimum 30 ºC).
Growth at pH 5.7. No growth in 5% & 7% NaCl. Growth in 2% NaCl is variable.
Spores widespread. Multiplication mainly in decomposing vegetation. Antibiotic producer („polymyxin”).
Asssociated with the rhizosphere (grasses, wheat) where many strains provide protection to the plant and enhance plant growth
(production of phytohormones). Most strains fix atmospheric nitrogen under anaerobic conditions.
Undetermined.
  1. Bîlbîie V., Pozsgi N., 1985, Bacteriologie Medicală, vol.ll, Ed. Medicală, Bucureşti.
  2. Gordon R.E., Haynes W.C., Pang C.H. (1973) – The genus Bacillus . Agriculture Handbook No. 427, U.S.D.A., Washington D.C.
  3. Buchanan R.E., Gibbons N.E., Cowan S.T., Holt J.G., Liston J., Murray R.G.E., Niven C.F., Ravin A.W., Stanier R.W. ( 1974) –  
    Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eight Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore.
  4. Răducănescu H., Valeria Bica-Popii, 1986, Bacteriologie veterinară, Ed. Ceres, Bucureşti.
  5. Priest F.G., 2009. Genus I.  Paenibacillus  Ash, Priest and Collins 1994. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 269-295.
Positive results for catalase, hydrolysis of esculin, hydrolysis of cellulose (weak),
hydrolysis of starch, gelatin liquefaction, decomposition of casein, reduction of nitrate
to nitrite, Voges-Proskauer test, acid production from arabinose, mannitol, glucose
(with gas), glycerol, xylan &  xylose.

Negative results for utilization of citrate as a source of carbon, indole production,  
hydrolysis of urea, oxidase & degradation of tyrosine.

Levan formed from sucrose; accumulates in large capsules , not in surrounding medium.
(c) Costin Stoica
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