Paenibacillus nematophilus
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characterisics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Paenibacillaceae, Genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus nematophilus  
Enright, McInerney and Griffin, 2003.
Gram-negative to Gram-variable (older cultures), motile rods,  0.5-1.0 x 3.5-7.0 µm.
Produce ellipsoidal endospore (1.7 x 1.2 µm), retained within the sporangium in
central / paracentral  position in swollen, spindle-shaped sporangium.
Colonies are thin, nonpigmented, smooth, slightly umbonate with an undulate edge,
small, 0.5-4.0 mm in diameter on nutrient agar and relatively slow-growing. Aerobic
growth. Anaerobic growth is variable. Growth temperature 10-37 ºC, optimum 30 ºC.
No growth at 5 or 40 ºC. Can grow in 2%, but not in 3% NaCl. Grow at pH 6-11.
Isolated from Heterorhabditis species, which are insect pathogenic nematode.
The sporangia of the bacterium adhere to the free-living, infective stage of the nematode, which carries it to new hosts (insects) in
which the bacterium reproduces.
  1. Enright M.R., McInerney J.O. and Griffin C.T., 2003.  Characterization of endospore-forming bacteria associated with
    entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis spp., and description of Paenibacillus nematophilus sp. nov. IJSEM 53, 435-441.
  2. Priest F.G., 2009. Genus I.  Paenibacillus  Ash, Priest and Collins 1994. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 269-295.
Positive results for catalase, hydrolysis of esculin, hydrolysis of starch, Voges-
Proskauer, acid production from: N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, cellobiose,
beta-gentiobiose, D-glucose, methyl-alpha-D-glucoside, glycogen, 5 ketogluconate (weak), maltose, salicin, sucrose, starch &
trehalose.

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, citrate utilization, beta-galactosidase, hydrolysis of agar, hydrolysis of casein, hydrolysis of
gelatin, hydrolysis of Tween 80, hydrolysis of urea, H
2S production, indole production, lysine decarboxylase, nitrate reduction, ornithine
decarboxylase, oxidase, tryptophan deaminase, acid production from: L-arabinose, fructose, galactose, glycerol, inositol, inulin,
D-mannitol, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, ribose & D-xylose.

Acid production from mannose is variable.
(c) Costin Stoica
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