Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Paenibacillaceae, Genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus nematophilus
Enright, McInerney and Griffin, 2003.
Gram-negative to Gram-variable (older cultures), motile rods, 0.5-1.0 x 3.5-7.0 µm.
Produce ellipsoidal endospore (1.7 x 1.2 µm), retained within the sporangium in
central / paracentral position in swollen, spindle-shaped sporangium.
Colonies are thin, nonpigmented, smooth, slightly umbonate with an undulate edge,
small, 0.5-4.0 mm in diameter on nutrient agar and relatively slow-growing. Aerobic
growth. Anaerobic growth is variable. Growth temperature 10-37 ºC, optimum 30 ºC.
No growth at 5 or 40 ºC. Can grow in 2%, but not in 3% NaCl. Grow at pH 6-11.
Isolated from Heterorhabditis species, which are insect pathogenic nematode.
The sporangia of the bacterium adhere to the free-living, infective stage of the nematode, which carries it to new hosts (insects) in
which the bacterium reproduces.
- Enright M.R., McInerney J.O. and Griffin C.T., 2003. Characterization of endospore-forming bacteria associated with
entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis spp., and description of Paenibacillus nematophilus sp. nov. IJSEM 53, 435-441.
- Priest F.G., 2009. Genus I. Paenibacillus Ash, Priest and Collins 1994. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
Positive results for catalase, hydrolysis of esculin, hydrolysis of starch, Voges-
Proskauer, acid production from: N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, cellobiose,
beta-gentiobiose, D-glucose, methyl-alpha-D-glucoside, glycogen, 5 ketogluconate (weak), maltose, salicin, sucrose, starch &
Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, citrate utilization, beta-galactosidase, hydrolysis of agar, hydrolysis of casein, hydrolysis of
gelatin, hydrolysis of Tween 80, hydrolysis of urea, H2S production, indole production, lysine decarboxylase, nitrate reduction, ornithine
decarboxylase, oxidase, tryptophan deaminase, acid production from: L-arabinose, fructose, galactose, glycerol, inositol, inulin,
D-mannitol, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, ribose & D-xylose.
Acid production from mannose is variable.
(c) Costin Stoica