Paenibacillus cineris
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Paenibacillaceae, Genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus cineris  Logan, De
Clerck, Lebbe, Verhelst, Goris, Forsyth, Rodriguez-Diaz, Heyndrickx and De Vos 2004.
Gram-negative / -variable, motile rods, 0.7-0.9 x 2.5-4.0 μm, occurring singly and in
pairs. Produce ellipsoidal; paracentr
al / subterminal spores in swollen sporangium.
Endospores are formed within 2-3 days incubation on BFA (
Bacillus fumarioli agar) at
30 ºC.
Colonies are low convex, with slightly irregular edges, opaque and glossy and light
beige to greyish with paler margins, and 1-5 mm diameter after 2 days at 30 ºC on
Nutrient agar. Grow aerobically and anaerobically. Grow in 2% & 3% NaCl but not in
5% NaCl medium. Grow at  8-15 ºC to 50 ºC, optimum temperature 30 ºC. Grow at pH
5.0-6.5 to 7.5-11.0; optimum pH 7.0.
Isolated from the ashy soil of a cold, dead fumarole at the foot of Lucifer Hill, a volcano on Candlemas Island, South Sandwich
archipelago, Antarctica.
Resistant to kanamycin and tetracycline. Sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, colistin sulphate, nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin.
Undetermined.
  1. Priest F.G., 2009. Genus I.  Paenibacillus  Ash, Priest and Collins 1994. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 269-295.
  2. Logan, N.A., De Clerck, E., Lebbe, L., Verhelst, A., Goris, J., Forsyth, G., Rodriguez-Diaz, M., Heyndrickx, M. and De Vos,P., 2004.
    Paenibacillus cineris sp. nov. and Paenibacillus cookii sp. nov., from Antarctic volcanic soils and a gelatin-processing plant .
    IJSEM 54, 1071-1076.
Positive results for catalase, oxidase, hydrolysis of casein (weak reaction), hydrolysis of esculin, nitrate reduction, ONPG, acid
production from: N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, L-arabinose, arbutin, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, beta-gentiobiose,
meso-inositol, D-glucose, lactose, maltose, D-mannitol, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, ribose, salicin, sucrose, starch, trehalose &
D-xylose.

Negative results for hydrolysis of gelatin, hydrolysis of urea, arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase,
indole production, H
2S production, citrate utilization, acid production from: adonitol, D- or L-arabitol, dulcitol, erythritol, D- or L-fucose,
glycerol, gluconate, 2- or 5-keto-gluconate, D-lyxose, rhamnose, sorbose, xylitol & L-xylose.

Variable results for Voges-Proskauer (weak reaction), acid production from: D-arabinose (weak reaction), glycogen, inulin, mannose
& sorbitol (weak reaction).
(c) Costin Stoica
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