Paenibacillus borealis
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Paenibacillaceae, Genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus borealis  Elo,
Suominen, Kampfer, Juhanoja, Salkinoja-Salonen and Haahtela 2001.
Gram-negative, motile rods, 0.75-1.0 x 3.0-5.0 µm. Produce subterminal / terminal,
ellipsoidal spores in swollen sporangia. The mature spores of the type strain have a
motif of stripes on the surface.
Selective isolation can be achieved in N-free media, with or without yeast extract, and
with glucose as carbon source. Colonies are  flat, smooth and opaque in nutrient agar.
Grow aerobically and anaerobically.  Grow in 2% NaCl but not in 5% NaCl media.
Growth temperature 10-37 ºC, optimum 28 ºC. Range of pH: 5.6-8.0, optimum pH 7.0.
Isolated from acid humus in Norway spruce forest in Finland and from rhizoplane of birch and red fescue. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
No growth in 0.001% lysozyme.
Undetermined.
  1. Elo S., Suominen I., Kämpfer P., Juhanoja J., Salkinoja-Salonen M. and Haahtela K., 2001. Paenibacillus borealis sp. nov., a
    nitrogen fixing species isolated from spruce forest humus in Finland. IJSEM 51, 535-545.
  2. Priest F.G., 2009. Genus I.  Paenibacillus  Ash, Priest and Collins 1994. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 269-295.
Positive results for hydrolysis of casein, hydrolysis of chitin, hydrolysis of pectin,
catalase, hydrolysis of esculin, hydrolysis of carboxymethyl cellulose, acid production
from: N-acetylglucosamine, aesculin, amygdalin, L-arabinose (with gas production),
arbutin, cellobiose, D-fructose, galactose, beta-gentiobiose, D-glucose (with gas production), glycerol (with gas production),
glycogen, inulin, lactose, maltose, D-mannitol (with gas production), D-mannose, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, salicin, sucrose,
starch, trehalose & D-xylose (with gas production).

Negative results for oxidase, indole production, citrate utilization, nitrate reduction, dihydroxyacetone, hydrolysis of gelatin, hydrolysis
of starch, Voges-Proskauer, acid production from: adonitol, D-arabinose, L-arabitol, dulcitol, erythritol, D- or L-fucose, inositol, 2- or
5-keto-gluconate, D-lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, sorbitol & L-xylose.

Variable results for acid production from: D-arabitol, gluconate, sorbose & xylitol.
(c) Costin Stoica
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