Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Alcaligenaceae, Genus Bordetella, Bordetella
holmesii Weyant et al. 1995.
Old synonym: CDC nonoxidizer group 2 (NO-2).
Gram-negative small, coccoid and short rods (longer rods occasionally observed).
Colonies on Bordet-Gengou medium are smooth, convex, pearly, glistening, nearly
transparent. Growth characteristics on blood agar are similar to those of B.
parapertussis. Narrow zone of haemolysis. Fastidious. Optimum growth
temperature is 37 ºC. No growth at 25 and 42 ºC. Strictly aerobic. Growth occurs on
MacConkey agar in 3 to 7 days of incubation at 35 ºC. No growth on Simmons citrate
agar, Salmonella-Shigella agar, cetrimide agar, nutrient broth with 6% NaCl (but
grows in nutrient broth with 0% NaCl in 2-7 days). Produce a brown soluble
pigment. Diffuse zones of browning may be observed around colonies, especially in
media supplemented with tyrosine.
Isolated from blood and upper respiratory tract cultures of humans.
Associated with septicemia, endocarditis, and respiratory failure in humans.
- Weyant (R.S.), Hollis (D.G.), Weaver (R.E.), Amin (M.F.M.), Steigerwalt (A.G.), O'Connor (S.P.), Whitney (A.M.), Daneshvar (M.I.),
Moss (C.W.) and Brenner (D.J.): Bordetella holmesii sp. nov., a new gram-negative species associated with septicemia. J. Clin.
Microbiol., 1995, 33, 1-7.
- Alison Weiss: The Genus Bordetella in: The Prokaryotes. A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria, Third Edition, Volume 5:
Proteobacteria: Alpha and Beta Subclasses, Martin Dworkin (Editor-in-Chief), 2006, Chapter 3.2.3, 648-674.
- Gary N. Sanden and Robbin S. Weyant: Genus III. Bordetella Moreno-Lopez 1952, 178AL in: Bergey's Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology, vol. 2, part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), 2005, 662-671.
- Von Wintzingerode (F.), Schattke (A.), Siddiqui (R.A.), Rosick (U.), Gobel (U.B.) and Gross (R.): Bordetella petrii sp. nov., isolated
from an anaerobic bioreactor, and emended description of the genus Bordetella. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1257-1265.
Positive results for alkaline phosphatase, catalase (some reactions are weak), chymotrypsin.
Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, esculin hydrolysis, ester C8 lipase, gelatin hydrolysis; H2S production in triple sugar iron
agar, indole production, lipase C14, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, nitrate reduction, nitrite reduction,
naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, oxidase, tetrazolium reduction, trypsin, urease, acid production from glucose, lactose, mannitol,
maltose, sucrose & xylose. It is asaccharolytic.
No utilization of: malonate, D-glucose, D-xylose, D-gluconate, D-mannitol, lactose, sucrose, maltose, caprate, adipate, L-malate,
phenylacetate, esculin, 5-ketogluconate, D- and L-arabinose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, glycerol, erythritol, inositol, sorbitol &
Variable results for H2S production (lead acetate paper) & litmus milk alkalinization.
(c) Costin Stoica