Advenella kashmirensis
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Alcaligenaceae, Genus Advenella, Advenella
kashmirensis
(Ghosh et al. 2005) Gibello et al. 2009.
- Advenella kashmirensis subsp. kashmirensis Shmareva et al. 2017,
- Advenella kashmirensis subsp. methylica Shmareva et al. 2017.

Old synonym:
Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis Ghosh et al. 2005.
Subsp. kashmirensis: Gram-negative, non-flagellated, oval to coccoid-shaped, 1.0-1.8
x 0.6-1.5 µm, occurring singly or in pairs, chains, branche chains or clusters.
Capsular coverings are present around cells of some strains.

Subsp. methyliсa: Gram-negative short rods, 0.3-0.35 × 0.4-0.45 μm.
Subsp. kashmirensis: colonies are circular, entire, smooth, opaque and creamy white and develop central dark mounds that
sometimes turn rusty red. Growth is observed between 10 and 42 ºC and between pH 4.5 and 8.5. Facultatively chemolithoautotrophic,
using thiosulfate or tetrathionate as electron and energy source. Thiocyanate, soluble sulfides, elemental sulfur, sulfite and arsenite
are not utilized as chemolithotrophic substrates. Does not require yeast extract or vitamins for growth. Aerobe.

Subsp. methyliсa: pinpoint colonies after 3-day growth, beige on a mineral agarized medium with methanol or yellowish cream on MPA
or TSA, rounded, transparent, smooth, flat in profile, with even edges, a glossy surface, and homogenous structure. Strictly aerobic.  
Facultative methylotrophic. Optimal growth occurs at 29 ºС, pH 8.0–8.5, and with 0.5% methanol in the medium. Grows with ≤2% NaCl
(optimum 0.5% NaCl). Folic acid is a growth factor. Grows on methanol, lactate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and does not grow on thiosulfate
and tetrathionate.
Subsp. kashmirensis strains have been isolated from bulk soils of a temperate orchard in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Subsp. methyliсa has been isolated from sedge rhizosphere in Turkey (the Pamukkale natural park).
Undetermined.
  1. Ghosh (W.), Bagchi (A.), Mandal (S.), Dam (B.) and Roy (P.): Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel mesophilic,
    neutrophilic, tetrathionate-oxidizing, facultatively chemolithotrophic betaproteobacterium isolated from soil from a temperate
    orchard in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 1779-1787.
  2. Shmareva, M. N., Agafonova, N. V., Kaparullina, E. N., Doronina, N. V. and Trotsenko, Y. A. 2016. Emended descriptions of
    Advenella kashmirensis subsp. kashmirensis subsp. nov., Advenella kashmirensis subsp. methylica subsp. nov., and Methylopila
    turkiensis sp. nov. Microbiology, 85, 646-648.
  3. Gibello (A.), Vela (A.I.), Martin (M.), Barra-Caracciolo (A.), Grenni (P.) and Fernandez-Garayzabal (J.F.): Reclassification of the
    members of the genus Tetrathiobacter Ghosh et al. 2005 to the genus Advenella Coenye et al. 2005. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.,
    2009, 59, 1914-1918.
  4. Matsuoka (M.), Park (S.), An (S.Y.), Miyahara (M.), Kim (S.W.), Kamino (K.), Fushinobu (S.), Yokota (A.), Wakagi (T.) and Shoun (H.):
    Advenella faeciporci sp. nov., a nitrite-denitrifying bacterium isolated from nitrifying–denitrifying activated sludge collected from a
    laboratory-scale bioreactor treating piggery wastewater. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 2986-2990.
Subsp. kashmirensis:
Positive results for acid phosphatase (weak), alkaline phosphatase, catalase, esterase (C4), alpha- and beta-galactosidase, beta-
glucuronidase, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase, alpha-fucosidase, indole
production, nitrate reduction, oxidase & urease.
Can utilize: adipate, succinate, citrate, malate, acetate, D-fructose, D-glucose, D- and L-xylose, D-lactose, D-galactose, L-glutamate, L-
lysine, D- and L-arabinose, L-cysteine, ribose, rhamnose, D- and L-fucose, malonic acid, propionic acid, itaconic acid & gluconate.
Negative results for cystine arylamidase, esterase lipase (C8),  arginine dihydrolase, aesculin hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis & starch
hydrolysis.
No utilization of: capric acid, esculin, phenylacetate, benzoate, sucrose, glycerol, L-histidine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, myo-inositol,
oxalate, mandelate, D-mannitol, D-raffinose, DL-lactate, L-tyrosine, L-threonine, L-serine, erythritol, D-adonitol, turanose, tagatose, D-
lyxose, xylitol, gentiobiose, glycogen, melibiose, D- or L-arabitol, methyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside,
sorbitol, starch, raffinose, inulin, dulcitol, L-sorbose, methyl beta-D-xylopyranoside, trehalose, 2-ketogluconate, melezitose & N-acetyl-D-
glucosamine.
Variable utilization of: D-mannose, D-maltose, L-arginine, L-tryptophan & L-aspartic acid.

Subsp. methyliсa:
Positive results for catalase, indole production, oxidase & starch hydrolysis.
Can utilize: formate, acetate, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, ribose, malate, fumarate, succinate, citrate, serine, alanine,
glutamate, glycine & glucuronic acid. Ferments glucose, rhamnose & melibiose.
Negative results for gelatinase, H
2S production, beta-galactosidase, nitrate reduction, ornithine decarboxylase & urease.
No utilization of: dimethylamine, trimethylamine, dichloromethane, dimethylsulfoxide, mannitol, sorbitol & melizitose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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