Achromobacter xylosoxidans
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Alcaligenaceae, Genus Achromobacter,
Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981, type species of the genus.

Note:
Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Ruger and Tan 1983) Yabuuchi et al. 1998 changed into Achromobacter
denitrificans
(Rüger and Tan 1983) Coenye et al. 2003.

Old synonym:
Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986.
Gram-negative straight rods with rounded ends, 0.8-1.2 x 2.5-3.0 μm. Motile by means
of 1-20 peritrichous flagella. Nonsporeforming.
Colonies on nutrient agar are circular, nonpigmented to grayish white, translucent to
opaque, flat to convex, usually smooth, sometimes dull or rough, margin usually
entire. On heart infusion agar colonies are 1 mm in diameter, low convex with entire
margin, moist, and with a glistening surface. Aerobic; grows anaerobically in the
presence of nitrate or nitrite by denitrification. Nonhalophilic. Nonhemolytic. Can grow
on MacConkey agar and cetrimide agar. Can grow at 42 ºC (optimum 30 ºC).
Isolated from clinical specimens such as blood, sputum, wounds, purulent ear discharge, spinal fluid, cerebral tissue, urine, feces,
and, in a few cases, also from disinfectant solutions.
Undetermined. Possible association with cystic fibrosis.
  1. Hans-Jurgen Busse and Georg Auling: Genus II. Achromobacter Yabuuchi and Yano 1981, 477VP emend. Yabuuchi, Kawamura,
    Kosako and Ezaki 1998a, 1083 in: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and
    Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), 2005, 658-662.
  2. Yabuuchi (E.) and Yano (I.): Achromobacter gen. nov. and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) nom. rev.
    Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 477-478.
  3. Yabuuchi (E.), Kawamura (Y.), Kosako (Y.) and Ezaki (T.): Emendation of the genus Achromobacter and Achromobacter
    xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano) and proposal of Achromobacter ruhlandii (Packer and Vishniac) comb. nov., Achromobacter
    piechaudii (Kiredjian et al.) comb. nov., and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan) comb. nov.
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1998, 42, 429-438.
  4. Vandamme, P. A., Peeters, C., Inganas, E., Cnockaert, M., Houf, K., Spilker, T., Moore, E. R. B. and Lipuma, J. J. 2016. Taxonomic
    dissection of Achromobacter denitrificans Coenye et al. 2003 and proposal of Achromobacter agilis sp. nov., nom. rev.,
    Achromobacter pestifer sp. nov., nom. rev., Achromobacter kerstersii sp. nov. and Achromobacter deleyi sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol., 66, 3708-3717.
  5. Sinne Soberg Gade, Niels Norskov-Lauritsen and Winnie Ridderberg. Prevalence and species distribution of Achromobacter sp.
    cultured from cystic fibrosis patients attending the Aarhus centre in Denmark. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017;66:686–689
    DOI 10.1099/jmm.0.000499.
Positive results for acid and alkaline phosphatase, catalase, nitrate reduction, oxidase,
acid production from: D-glucose, galactose, D-arabinose, D-xylose & 3% ethanol.
Can utilize: D-glucose, D-xylose, adipate, pimelate, D-gluconate, sebacate, suberate, meso-tartrate, acetate, valerate, isovalerate,
itaconate, mesaconate, propionate, citrate, pimelate, butyrate, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-alpha-alanine, L-glutamate, D- and L-
malate, DL-lactate, DL-beta-hydroxybutyrate, L-proline, L-aspartate, isobutyrate, caprate, glutarate, alpha-ketoglutarate, azelate,
aconitate, citraconate, phenylacetate, L-leucine, L-serine, L-threonine, L-isoleucine, L-valine, L-histidine & L-phenylalanine.

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, DNase, beta-glucosidase, H
2S production, lysine and ornithine decarboxylase, esculin
hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, urease, acid production from: fructose, cellobiose, lactose, maltose,
adonitol, dulcitol, inositol, inulin, salicin, rhamnose, mannitol, sorbitol, melibiose, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose & melezitose.
No utilization of: L-arabinose, D-mannitol, sucrose, trehalose, D- and L-arabitol, N-acetylglucosamine, esculin, D-lyxose, L-xylose, D-
ribose, meso-inositol,  inulin, D-tagatose, melezitose, D- and L-fucose, arbutin, gentiobiose, turanose, adonitol, glycogen, melibiose,
amygdalin, spermine, histamine, ethanolamine, benzylamine, pentylamine, maltose, 2- and 5-ketogluconate, butylamine, betaine,
creatine, sarcosine, p-hydroxybenzoate , malonate, glycolate, L-tartrate, m-hydroxybenzoate, L-mandelate, kynurenate, putrescine,
acetamide,  D-galactose, L-sorbose, raffinose, dulcitol, L-rhamnose, cellobiose, lactose, salicin, meso-erythritol, sorbitol, oxalate,
levulinate, o-hydroxybenzoate, D-mandelate, phthalate, L-arginine, m- or p-aminobenzoate.

Variable results for utilization of: D-fructose, D-arabinose, D-mannose, D-tartrate, glycerol, beta-alanine, heptanoate, caproate,
caprylate, pelargonate, maleate, glycine, benzoate, DL-glycerate, L-ornithine, pyruvate, L-lysine, L-arginine, L-citrulline gamma-
aminobutyrate, DL-norleucine, L-tryptophan, D-aminovalerate, L-tyrosine, L-cysteine, tryptamine, DL-kynurenine & L-methionine.
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