Achromobacter denitrificans
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Alcaligenaceae, Genus Achromobacter,
Achromobacter denitrificans (Ruger and Tan 1983) Coenye et al. 2003.

Note:
Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Ruger and Tan 1983) Yabuuchi et al. 1998 changed into Achromobacter
denitrificans
(Rüger and Tan 1983) Coenye et al. 2003.

Old synonyms:
Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Ruger and Tan 1983, Alcaligenes
xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans
(Ruger and Tan 1983) Kiredjian et al. 1986, Alcaligenes denitrificans Leifson and Hugh 1954.
Gram-negative straight rods with rounded ends, 0.8-1.2 x 2.5-3.0 μm. Motile by means
of 1-20 peritrichous flagella. Nonsporeforming.
Obligately aerobic and nonfermentative. Some strains are capable of anaerobic
respiration with nitrate as the electron acceptor. Nonhalophilic. Nonhemolytic. Can
grow on MacConkey agar and cetrimide agar. Able to grow at 41 ºC.
Isolated from soil, and clinical specimens (feces, urine, blood, pleural fluid, purulent ear discharges, prostatic secretions, and throat
swabs).
Undetermined.
  1. Hans-Jurgen Busse and Georg Auling: Genus II. Achromobacter Yabuuchi and Yano 1981, 477VP emend. Yabuuchi, Kawamura,
    Kosako and Ezaki 1998a, 1083 in: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and
    Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), 2005, 658-662.
  2. Yabuuchi (E.), Kawamura (Y.), Kosako (Y.) and Ezaki (T.): Emendation of the genus Achromobacter and Achromobacter
    xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano) and proposal of Achromobacter ruhlandii (Packer and Vishniac) comb. nov., Achromobacter
    piechaudii (Kiredjian et al.) comb. nov., and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan) comb. nov.
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1998, 42, 429-438.
  3. Vandamme, P. A., Peeters, C., Inganas, E., Cnockaert, M., Houf, K., Spilker, T., Moore, E. R. B. and Lipuma, J. J. 2016. Taxonomic
    dissection of Achromobacter denitrificans Coenye et al. 2003 and proposal of Achromobacter agilis sp. nov., nom. rev.,
    Achromobacter pestifer sp. nov., nom. rev., Achromobacter kerstersii sp. nov. and Achromobacter deleyi sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol., 66, 3708-3717.
Positive results for catalase, nitrate reduction (most strains), oxidase & C-4 lipase.
Acid is produced in from 3% ethanol within 48 h and from glycerol after 72 h.
Can utilize: citrate, meso-tartrate, itaconate, mesaconate, adipate, pimelate, D-gluconate (most strain), sebacate, suberate, D- and
L-malate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-alpha-alanine,L-glutamate, DL-lactate, DL-beta-hydroxybutyrate,
L-proline, L-aspartate, glutarate, alpha-ketoglutarate, azelate, pyruvate, aconitate, L-threonine & L-phenylalanine.

Negative results for acid and alkaline phosphatase, arginine dihydrolase, DNase, beta-glucosidase,  H
2S production, lysine and
ornithine decarboxylase, esculin hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, starch hydrolysis, urease, acid production
from: D-glucose, D- and L-xylose.
No utilization of: L-arabinose, glucose, xylose, D-mannitol, maltose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, n-capric acid, sucrose, trehalose,
D-arabitol, 2- and 5-ketogluconate, esculin, D-lyxose, inulin, D-tagatose, melezitose, D- and L-fucose, arbutin, gentiobiose, turanose,
L-arabitol, adonitol, glycogen, melibiose, amygdalin, spermine, histamine, ethanolamine, benzylamine, pentylamine, butylamine,
betaine, creatine, sarcosine, p-hydroxybenzoate, quinate, D-ribose, meso-inositol, L-arginine, L-methionine, D-galactose, L-sorbose,
raffinose, dulcitol, L-rhamnose, cellobiose, lactose, salicin, meso-erythritol, sorbitol, oxalate, levulinate, o-hydroxybenzoate,
D-mandelate, phthalate, L-arginine, m-aminobenzoate & p-aminobenzoate.

Variable results for utilization of: D-fructose, D-arabinose, D-mannose, D- and L-tartrate, valerate, isovalerate, glycerol, beta-alanine,
isobutyrate, heptanoate, caproate, caprylate, pelargonate, maleate, glycine, benzoate, caprate, malonate, glycolate, DL-glycerate,
L-ornithine, citraconate, m-hydroxybenzoate, L-mandelate, phenylacetate, L-leucine, L-serine, L-isoleucine, L-valine, L-lysine,
L-citrulline, gamma-aminobutyrate, DL-norleucine, L-tryptophan, D-aminovalerate, L-histidine, L-tyrosine, L-cysteine, tryptamine,
DL-kynurenine & acetamide.
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